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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 109th Congress
While major immigration reform proposals remain pending, Congress has enacted limited provisions on temporary and permanent employment-based immigration as part of P.L. 109-13. It also has enacted legislation concerning alien victims of domestic violence, trafficking in persons, and refugees. This report discusses these and other immigration-related issues that have seen legislative action or are of significant congressional interest. DHS appropriations and immigration legislation related to Hurricane Katrina are covered in other products and are not discussed here. The final section of the report lists enacted legislation and selected bills receiving action digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9700/
Immigration Related Border Security Legislation in the 109th Congress
Border security is considered a central aspect of the United States' overall homeland security. Securing the border involves controlling the official ports of entry (POE) through which legitimate travelers and commerce enter the country, as well as monitoring and patrolling the nation's land and maritime borders to detect and interdict the entry of illegal persons and contraband. In the 109th Congress, there are a large number of bills currently pending that would address some of the immigration issues associated with border security by focusing on the movement of people into the country, both at POE and illegally across the U.S. international land border. This report will focus on the main legislative issues facing the 109th Congress relating to the movement of people across the border. It will not address interior enforcement issues or cargo security issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10349/
Immigration Related Border Security Legislation in the 109th Congress
This report is organized to reflect the main border security issues relating to the movement of people into the country, as indicated by the legislation currently pending in the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9739/
Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions
The military generally provides support to law enforcement and immigration authorities along the southern border. Reported escalations in violence and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some lawmakers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the border region. President Bush has reportedly announced an interest in sending National Guard troops to support the Border Patrol. Addressing domestic laws and activities with the military, however, might run afoul of the Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits use of the armed forces to perform the tasks of civilian law enforcement unless explicitly authorized. There are alternative legal authorities for deploying the National Guard, and the precise scope of permitted activities and funds may vary with the authority exercised. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8953/
Nonimmigrant Overstays: Brief Synthesis of the Issue
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Immigration: S Visas for Criminal and Terrorist Informants
In response to the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, Congress passed legislation making permanent a provision that allows aliens with critical information on criminal or terrorist organizations to come into the United States to provide information to law enforcement officials. The law (S. 1424, and then P.L. 107-45) amended the Immigration and Nationality Act to provide permanent authority for the administration of the "S" visa, which was scheduled to expire on September 13, 2001. On November 29, 2001, then-Attorney General John Ashcroft announced the "Responsible Cooperators Program" to reach out to persons who may be eligible for the S visa. Up to 200 criminal informants and 50 terrorist informants may be admitted annually. Since FY2005, more than 500 informants and their accompanying family members have entered on S visas. No terrorist informants have been admitted into the U.S. since 1996. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10275/
Immigration: S Visas for Criminal and Terrorist Informants
This report discusses the legislation making permanent a provision that allows aliens with critical information on criminal or terrorist organizations to come into the United States to provide information to law enforcement officials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9710/
Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions
The military generally provides support to law enforcement and immigration authorities along the southern border. Reported escalations in violence and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some lawmakers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the border region. President Bush has reportedly announced an interest in sending National Guard troops to support the Border Patrol. Addressing domestic laws and activities with the military, however, might run afoul of the Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits use of the armed forces to perform the tasks of civilian law enforcement unless explicitly authorized. There are alternative legal authorities for deploying the National Guard, and the precise scope of permitted activities and funds may vary with the authority exercised. This report will be updated as warranted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8952/
Immigration Policy on Expedited Removal of Aliens
This report discusses immigration policy and expedited removal, an immigration enforcement strategy originally conceived to operate at the borders and ports of entry, recently has been expanded in certain border regions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9012/
Immigration Legislation Issues in the 109th Congress
While immigration reform proposals remain pending, Congress has enacted limited provisions on temporary and permanent employment-based immigration as part of P.L. 109-13. It also has enacted legislation concerning alien victims of domestic violence, trafficking in persons, and refugees. This report discusses these and other immigration-related issues that have seen legislative action or are of significant congressional interest. DHS appropriations and immigration legislation related to Hurricane Katrina are covered in other products and are not discussed here. The final section of the report lists enacted legislation and selected bills receiving action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9013/
U.S. Citizenship of Persons Born in the United States to Alien Parents
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U.S. Immigration Policy on Permanent Admissions
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Immigration Related Border Security Legislation in the 109th Congress
This report is organized to reflect the main border security issues relating to the movement of people into the country, as indicated by the legislation currently pending in the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9010/
Enforcing Immigration Law: The Role of State and Local Law Enforcement
This report examines the role of state and local law enforcement in enforcing immigration law. The discussion is limited to the role of state and local law enforcement in the investigation, arrest, and detention of all immigration violators. The report does not discuss the prosecution, adjudication, or removal of aliens who violate the law. The report opens with a brief discussion of the types of immigration interior enforcement activities that the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) pursued and the current immigration activities that are now the focus of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). A discussion of the legal authority that permits state and local law enforcement to enforce immigration law under certain circumstances follows. Current administrative efforts to involve state and local law enforcement in enforcing immigration law as well as selected issues are discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the pros and cons of such a policy and an analysis of policy options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10423/
Enforcing Immigration Law: The Role of State and Local Law Enforcement
This report examines the role of state and local law enforcement in enforcing immigration law. The discussion is limited to the role of state and local law enforcement in the investigation, arrest, and detention of all immigration violators. The report does not discuss the prosecution, adjudication, or removal of aliens who violate the law. The report opens with a brief discussion of the types of immigration interior enforcement activities that the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) pursued and the current immigration activities that are now the focus of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). A discussion of the legal authority that permits state and local law enforcement to enforce immigration law under certain circumstances follows. Current administrative efforts to involve state and local law enforcement in enforcing immigration law as well as selected issues are discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the pros and cons of such a policy and an analysis of policy options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9729/
Immigration Statistics on the Web
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U.S. Immigration Policy on Permanent Admissions
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Civilian Patrols Along the Border: Legal and Policy Issues
This report opens with a discussion on the federal authority to enforce immigration law at the border and some U.S. Border Patrol operations that have affected illegal migration patterns along the southwest border. Next, the report provides a history of civilian border patrol groups, with a particular focus on the “Minuteman Project” and other groups operating along the southwest border. It then highlights issues of authority that might arise, and includes, as an appendix, a table that sets forth various state laws that may be useful to civilians performing immigration-related enforcement activities. The report also addresses some of the legal and policy issues, as mentioned above, that have surfaced from civilian involvement in immigration enforcement at the border. The report concludes with summaries of legislation introduced in the 109th Congress that address the use of civilian border patrols. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9015/
Immigration Enforcement within the United States
This report provides an analysis of immigration enforcement within the United States. The report opens with a definition of immigration enforcement, a discussion of the statutory authority to conduct immigration enforcement, and an overview of immigration enforcement related legislation since 1986. It follows with an exposition on the dichotomy of interior and border enforcement. The report then details different aspects of immigration enforcement in the United States including detention and removal, alien smuggling and trafficking, document and benefit fraud, worksite enforcement, inspections at ports of entry, and patrolling the border between ports of entry. The report continues with a discussion of the role of state and local law enforcement in the enforcement of immigration laws. The report then presents a comparative analysis of the resources devoted to divergent immigration enforcement activities. It concludes with a discussion of crosscutting immigration enforcement issues related to the structure of the Department of Homeland Security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9167/
Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs
This report discusses of guest worker programs that takes place against a backdrop of historically high levels of unauthorized migration to the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8765/
The U.N. Convention Against Torture: Overview of U.S. Implementation Policy Concerning the Removal of Aliens
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Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy
This report first explains the connection made over the past several years between farm labor and immigration policies. It next examines the composition of the seasonal agricultural labor force and presents the arguments of grower and farmworker advocates concerning its adequacy relative to employer demand. The report closes with an analysis of the trends in employment, unemployment, time worked and wages of authorized and unauthorized farmworkers to determine whether they are consistent with the existence of a nationwide shortage of domestically available farmworkers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8639/
Toward More Effective Immigration Policies: Selected Organizational Issues
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Toward More Effective Immigration Policies: Selected Organizational Issues
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The Effects on U.S. Farm Workers of an Agricultural Guest Worker Program
This report discusses the debate concerning an agricultural guest worker program and the impact an agricultural guest worker program might have on U.S. workers. Guest worker programs are meant to assure employers (e.g., fruit, vegetable, and horticultural specialty growers) of an adequate supply of labor when and where it is needed while not adding permanent residents to the U.S. population. They include mechanisms, such as the H-2A program's labor certification process, intended to avoid adversely affecting the wages and working conditions of similarly employed U.S. workers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795502/
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006
This report, which will be updated periodically, focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. These interactions are increasingly tense in 2006 due to violence in the border region and debate over U.S. immigration reform. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral "Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10395/
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006
This report focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral “Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9798/
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006
This report focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral “Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9372/
Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol
This report includes some issues for Congress to consider which could include the slow rate of integration between the USBP’s biometric database of illegal aliens and the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) biometric database of criminals and terrorists; the number of unauthorized aliens who die attempting to enter the country each year; the organized human smuggling rings that have proliferated as entering the country has become more difficult; and the threat posed by terrorists along the sparsely defended Northern border as well as the more porous Southwest border. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8464/
Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy
This report first explains the connection made over the past several years between farm labor and immigration policies. It next examines the composition of the seasonal agricultural labor force and presents the arguments of grower and farmworker advocates concerning its adequacy relative to employer demand. The report closes with an analysis of the trends in employment, unemployment, time worked and wages of authorized and unauthorized farmworkers to determine whether they are consistent with the existence of a nationwide shortage of domestically available farmworkers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8573/
Cuban Migration Policy and Issues
Many of the issues surrounding Cuban migration are unique but not new. Normal immigration from Cuba has been elusive since Fidel Castro came to power. Over the past 40 years, the practice of Cubans fleeing by boat to the United States has become commonplace, and at some points reached the levels of a mass exodus. Since the last upsurge of “boat people” in the mid-1990s, the United States and Cuba worked toward establishing safe, legal immigration, which include returning migrants interdicted by the U.S. Coast Guard. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9147/
The Federal Migrant Education Program as Amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
This report describes the legislative and funding history of the program -- highlighting important changes made since it was established. A section on evaluations of the program is included at the end of the report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627116/
Immigration Policy on Expedited Removal of Aliens
This report discusses immigration policy and expedited removal, an immigration enforcement strategy originally conceived to operate at the borders and ports of entry, recently has been expanded in certain border regions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8668/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8352/
Immigration: Selected Opinions of Judge Samuel Alito
This report discusses notable majority and dissenting opinions written by Judge Alito relating to immigration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8137/
Immigration Related Border Security Legislation in the 109th Congress
This report is organized to reflect the main border security issues relating to the movement of people into the country, as indicated by the legislation currently pending in the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8229/
Immigration Policy on Expedited Removal of Aliens
This report discusses immigration policy and expedited removal, an immigration enforcement strategy originally conceived to operate at the borders and ports of entry, recently has been expanded in certain border regions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8049/
Immigration Related Border Security Legislation in the 109th Congress
This report is organized to reflect the main border security issues relating to the movement of people into the country, as indicated by the legislation currently pending in the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8228/
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2005
This report focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral “Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8038/
Hurricane Katrina-Related Immigration Issues and Legislation
This report focuses on four immigration policy implications of Hurricane Katrina digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8048/
Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 109th Congress
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Immigration Policy on Expedited Removal of Aliens
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Border Security: Apprehensions of “Other Than Mexican”Aliens
As the United States Border Patrol (USBP) discharges its mission it encounters unauthorized aliens from around the world attempting to illegally enter the United States. In fiscal year (FY) 2004, USBP agents apprehended 1.16 million people attempting to enter the country illegally between official POE; 93% of these aliens were Mexican nationals. Because the vast majority of people apprehended each year by the USBP are Mexican nationals, the agency categorizes aliens as Mexicans or Other Than Mexicans (OTM). Over the past three years, OTM apprehensions have more than tripled nationwide and have been concentrated along the South Texas border. The reasons for this dramatic increase, and its geographical concentration in Texas, are not altogether clear. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7906/
Hurricane Katrina-Related Immigration Issues and Legislation
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Summary of State Laws on the Issuance of Driver's Licenses
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Summary of State Laws on the Issuance of Driver's Licenses
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U.S. Citizenship of Persons Born in the United States to Alien Parents
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Mexican Workers in the United States: A Comparison with Workers from Social Security Totalization Countries
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Immigration Issues in Trade Agreements
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Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity
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