You limited your search to:

 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: July 23, 2008
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. Many in the scientific community maintain that in order to compete with countries that are rapidly expanding their scientific and technological capabilities, the country needs to bring to the United States those whose skills will benefit society and will enable us to compete in the new-technology based global economy. This report analyzes this issue in detail and includes discussion of related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Haiti: Efforts to Restore President Aristide, 1991-1994

Haiti: Efforts to Restore President Aristide, 1991-1994

Date: May 11, 1995
Creator: Taft-Morales, Maureen
Description: This report tracks the efforts to restore to office President Aristide of Haiti between the years 1991-1994. During this period, the main U.S. foreign policy concern was the restoration of the democratic process to Haiti. Closely related to this was the issue of Haitians attempting to flee to the United States by boat. Congressional concerns focused on human rights, Haitian migration, socioeconomic conditions, and drug trafficking.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion

Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion

Date: May 18, 2009
Creator: Haddal, Chad C. & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses the criteria that foreign nationals must meet before admission to the United States, including the reasons why a foreign national might be denied admission, most particularly on health-related grounds. This report discusses such issues in relation to the recent outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 ("swine flu") virus, and how the outbreak has affected various government agencies, such as the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). This report also discusses efforts to confront and address such issues on a legislative front.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and Current Developments

The Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and Current Developments

Date: July 16, 2009
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: This report discusses in brief the current political state of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as the crisis situation in eastern Congo that has displaced more than 250,000 civilians. It also describes U.S., U.N., and other international efforts to aid in resolving the crisis.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers

Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers

Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

Date: July 16, 2009
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes. The crisis in Darfur began in February 2003, when two rebel groups emerged to challenge the National Congress Party (NCP) government in Darfur. The crisis in Darfur in western Sudan has led to a major humanitarian disaster, with an estimated 2.45 million people displaced, more than 240,000 people forced into neighboring Chad, and an estimated 450,000 people killed. This report discusses this situation in detail and also discusses U.S. and international efforts to aid in resolving the crisis.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Protecting the U.S. Perimeter: Border Searches Under the Fourth Amendment

Protecting the U.S. Perimeter: Border Searches Under the Fourth Amendment

Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Kim, Yule
Description: This report first outlines the statutes authorizing certain federal officers to conduct warrantless searches. It then addresses the scope of the government's constitutional authority to search and seize persons and property at the border. It also describes the varying levels of suspicion generally required for each type of border search as interpreted by the courts. Finally, this report lists several bills before the 111th Congress that address border searches. This report does not address interior searches and seizures performed by immigration personnel since they are not traditional "border searches."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Passports: Current Regulations

Passports: Current Regulations

Date: April 30, 2009
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.
Description: This report details changes made to travel between the United States and other countries in the Western Hemisphere, including Canada, Mexico, Bermuda, and the Caribbean island nations. Such changes include the expansion of time necessary to get a passport, as well as additional passport and proof-of-identity documentation requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congress and U.S. Policy on North Korean Human Rights and Refugees: Recent Legislation and Implementation

Congress and U.S. Policy on North Korean Human Rights and Refugees: Recent Legislation and Implementation

Date: October 22, 2008
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Description: The passage of the reauthorization of the North Korean Human Rights Act in October 2008 reasserted congressional interest in influencing the Bush Administration's policy toward North Korea. In addition to reauthorizing funding at original levels, the bill expresses congressional criticism of the implementation of the original 2004 law and adjusts some of the provisions relating to the Special Envoy on Human Rights in North Korea and the U.S. resettlement of North Korean refugees. Some outside analysts have pointed to the challenges of highlighting North Korea's human rights violations in the midst of the ongoing nuclear negotiations, as well as the difficulty in effectively reaching North Korean refugees as outlined in the law. Further, the law may complicate coordination on North Korea with China and South Korea.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Instability in Chad

Instability in Chad

Date: August 6, 2008
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Description: This report discusses the currently volatile political and security situation in Chad. Some issues Chad is currently facing include ethnic clashes, banditry, and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; a large number of displaced persons who have fled Chad to the neighboring nation of Cameroon; an increasing number of refugee influx from the nearby troubled regions of the Central African Republic (CAR) and Sudan's Darfur; and inadequate security forces.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Medical Graduates: A Brief Overview of the J-1 Visa Waiver Program

Foreign Medical Graduates: A Brief Overview of the J-1 Visa Waiver Program

Date: June 5, 2008
Creator: Ester, Karma
Description: The Educational and Cultural Exchange Visitor program has become a gateway for foreign medical graduates (FMGs) to gain admission to the United States as nonimmigrants for the purpose of graduate medical education and training. These FMGs either enter under the J-1 nonimmigrant visa or receive waivers that require them to work in a designated healthcare professional shortage area for a minimum of three years. The ability of states to request such waivers is known as the "Conrad State Program," and was added temporarily to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) in 1994. It has been extended by the last several Congresses. Legislation has been introduced in the 110th Congress to address the program's expiration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis

Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis

Date: October 7, 2008
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: Currently, federal law prohibits states from granting unauthorized aliens certain postsecondary educational benefits on the basis of state residence, unless equal benefits are made available to all U.S. citizens. This prohibition is commonly understood to apply to the granting of "in-state" residency status for tuition purposes. In the 110th Congress, several bills that would amend this federal law have been introduced. Meanwhile, some states have passed laws aimed at making unauthorized state residents eligible for in-state tuition without violating this provision. This report provides a legal overview of cases involving immigrant access to higher education, as well as an analysis of the legality of state laws that make in-state tuition rates available to illegal immigrants.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Date: May 13, 2008
Creator: Nunez-Neto, Blas
Description: After the massive reorganization of federal agencies precipitated by the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there are now four main federal agencies charged with securing the United States' borders: the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the United States Coast Guard, and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). This report briefly describes each agency's role in securing our nation's borders.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance

Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance

Date: May 13, 2008
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher & Nunez-Neto, Blas
Description: Congress has expressed a great deal of interest in using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to surveil the United States' international land border. This report examines the strengths and limitations of deploying UAVs along the borders and related issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues

Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues

Date: September 30, 2008
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen & Ester, Karma
Description: When civil unrest, violence, or natural disasters erupt in spots around the world, concerns arise over the safety of nationals from these troubled places who are in the United States. Provisions exist in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to offer temporary protected status (TPS) or relief from removal under specified circumstances. The United States currently provides TPS to nationals from seven countries: Burundi, El Salvador, Honduras, Liberia, Nicaragua, Somalia, and Sudan. Under the INA, the executive branch grants TPS. Congress, however, has also granted TPS legislatively, and legislation pertaining to TPS has received action in the 110th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration: S Visas for Criminal and Terrorist Informants

Immigration: S Visas for Criminal and Terrorist Informants

Date: May 17, 2006
Creator: Ester, Karma
Description: In response to the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, Congress passed legislation making permanent a provision that allows aliens with critical information on criminal or terrorist organizations to come into the United States to provide information to law enforcement officials. The law (S. 1424, and then P.L. 107-45) amended the Immigration and Nationality Act to provide permanent authority for the administration of the "S" visa, which was scheduled to expire on September 13, 2001. On November 29, 2001, then-Attorney General John Ashcroft announced the "Responsible Cooperators Program" to reach out to persons who may be eligible for the S visa. Up to 200 criminal informants and 50 terrorist informants may be admitted annually. Since FY2005, more than 500 informants and their accompanying family members have entered on S visas. No terrorist informants have been admitted into the U.S. since 1996.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration Related Border Security Legislation in the 109th Congress

Immigration Related Border Security Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: June 8, 2006
Creator: Nunez-Neto, Blas & Beaver, Janice Cheryl
Description: Border security is considered a central aspect of the United States' overall homeland security. Securing the border involves controlling the official ports of entry (POE) through which legitimate travelers and commerce enter the country, as well as monitoring and patrolling the nation's land and maritime borders to detect and interdict the entry of illegal persons and contraband. In the 109th Congress, there are a large number of bills currently pending that would address some of the immigration issues associated with border security by focusing on the movement of people into the country, both at POE and illegally across the U.S. international land border. This report will focus on the main legislative issues facing the 109th Congress relating to the movement of people across the border. It will not address interior enforcement issues or cargo security issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 109th Congress

Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 109th Congress

Date: June 9, 2006
Creator: Bruno, Andorra; Wasem, Ruth Ellen; Siskin, Alison; Nunez-Neto, Blas; Garcia, John; Vina, Stephen R. et al.
Description: Security concerns are figuring prominently in the development of and debate on immigration legislation in the 109th Congress. The REAL ID Act, passed in May 2005, contains a number of immigration and identification document-related provisions intended to improve homeland security. Among these are provisions to make changes to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) with respect to asylum and other forms of relief from removal; to expand the terrorism-related grounds for alien inadmissibility and deportation; and to set standards for state-issued drivers' licenses and personal identification cards. H.R. 4437 contains provisions on border security, the role of state and local law enforcement, employment eligibility verification and worksite enforcement, smuggling, detention, and other enforcement-related issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006

Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006

Date: February 16, 2006
Creator: Cook, Colleen W.
Description: This report, which will be updated periodically, focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. These interactions are increasingly tense in 2006 due to violence in the border region and debate over U.S. immigration reform. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral "Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

Date: September 5, 2006
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) spells out a strict set of admissions criteria and exclusion rules for all foreign nationals who come permanently to the United States as immigrants (i.e., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. This report opens with an overview of the grounds for inadmissibility and summarizes key legislation enacted in recent years. Where relevant, the report discusses how recently enacted legislation, including the REAL ID Act, affects these matters. This report also briefly discusses two recent proposals that would modify the terrorism-related provisions of the INA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity

Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity

Date: October 23, 2006
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Eig, Larry M.
Description: Congress has the authority to determine classes of aliens who may be admitted into the United States and the grounds for which they may be removed. Pursuant to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended, certain conduct may either disqualify an alien from entering the United States ("inadmissibility") or provide grounds for his or her removal/deportation. Prominently included among this conduct is criminal activity. This report explores this issue in-depth, especially the difference between the terms "illegal alien" and "criminal alien" and relevant legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Enforcing Immigration Law: The Role of State and Local Law Enforcement

Enforcing Immigration Law: The Role of State and Local Law Enforcement

Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M.; Vina, Stephen R. & Ester, Karma
Description: This report examines the role of state and local law enforcement in enforcing immigration law. The discussion is limited to the role of state and local law enforcement in the investigation, arrest, and detention of all immigration violators. The report does not discuss the prosecution, adjudication, or removal of aliens who violate the law. The report opens with a brief discussion of the types of immigration interior enforcement activities that the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) pursued and the current immigration activities that are now the focus of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). A discussion of the legal authority that permits state and local law enforcement to enforce immigration law under certain circumstances follows. Current administrative efforts to involve state and local law enforcement in enforcing immigration law as well as selected issues are discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the pros and cons of such a policy and an analysis of policy options for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts

Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts

Date: September 18, 2006
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of procedural rules applicable in selected historical and contemporary tribunals for the trials of war crimes suspects. The chart that follows compares selected procedural safeguards employed in criminal trials in federal criminal court with parallel protective measures in military general courts-martial, international military tribunals used after World War II, including the International Military Tribunal (IMT or "Nuremberg Tribunal"), and the International Criminal Courts for the former Yugoslavis (ICTY) and Rwanda (ICTR).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Date: October 19, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: Issues and legislation related to foreign students continue to arise. The funding and English-language competency of foreign students have raised concerns with some universities, advocacy groups, and other observers. Additionally, some recent legislation has focused on attracting foreign students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Legislation passed in the Senate (S. 2611) would create pathways to citizenship for foreign students in the STEM fields of study. Although there are provisions in this legislation for undergraduate students, the major focus has been on students obtaining advanced degrees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department