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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers

Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers

Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

Date: July 16, 2009
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes. The crisis in Darfur began in February 2003, when two rebel groups emerged to challenge the National Congress Party (NCP) government in Darfur. The crisis in Darfur in western Sudan has led to a major humanitarian disaster, with an estimated 2.45 million people displaced, more than 240,000 people forced into neighboring Chad, and an estimated 450,000 people killed. This report discusses this situation in detail and also discusses U.S. and international efforts to aid in resolving the crisis.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Protecting the U.S. Perimeter: Border Searches Under the Fourth Amendment

Protecting the U.S. Perimeter: Border Searches Under the Fourth Amendment

Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Kim, Yule
Description: This report first outlines the statutes authorizing certain federal officers to conduct warrantless searches. It then addresses the scope of the government's constitutional authority to search and seize persons and property at the border. It also describes the varying levels of suspicion generally required for each type of border search as interpreted by the courts. Finally, this report lists several bills before the 111th Congress that address border searches. This report does not address interior searches and seizures performed by immigration personnel since they are not traditional "border searches."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Passports: Current Regulations

Passports: Current Regulations

Date: April 30, 2009
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.
Description: This report details changes made to travel between the United States and other countries in the Western Hemisphere, including Canada, Mexico, Bermuda, and the Caribbean island nations. Such changes include the expansion of time necessary to get a passport, as well as additional passport and proof-of-identity documentation requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congress and U.S. Policy on North Korean Human Rights and Refugees: Recent Legislation and Implementation

Congress and U.S. Policy on North Korean Human Rights and Refugees: Recent Legislation and Implementation

Date: October 22, 2008
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Description: The passage of the reauthorization of the North Korean Human Rights Act in October 2008 reasserted congressional interest in influencing the Bush Administration's policy toward North Korea. In addition to reauthorizing funding at original levels, the bill expresses congressional criticism of the implementation of the original 2004 law and adjusts some of the provisions relating to the Special Envoy on Human Rights in North Korea and the U.S. resettlement of North Korean refugees. Some outside analysts have pointed to the challenges of highlighting North Korea's human rights violations in the midst of the ongoing nuclear negotiations, as well as the difficulty in effectively reaching North Korean refugees as outlined in the law. Further, the law may complicate coordination on North Korea with China and South Korea.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Instability in Chad

Instability in Chad

Date: August 6, 2008
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Description: This report discusses the currently volatile political and security situation in Chad. Some issues Chad is currently facing include ethnic clashes, banditry, and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; a large number of displaced persons who have fled Chad to the neighboring nation of Cameroon; an increasing number of refugee influx from the nearby troubled regions of the Central African Republic (CAR) and Sudan's Darfur; and inadequate security forces.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Medical Graduates: A Brief Overview of the J-1 Visa Waiver Program

Foreign Medical Graduates: A Brief Overview of the J-1 Visa Waiver Program

Date: June 5, 2008
Creator: Ester, Karma
Description: The Educational and Cultural Exchange Visitor program has become a gateway for foreign medical graduates (FMGs) to gain admission to the United States as nonimmigrants for the purpose of graduate medical education and training. These FMGs either enter under the J-1 nonimmigrant visa or receive waivers that require them to work in a designated healthcare professional shortage area for a minimum of three years. The ability of states to request such waivers is known as the "Conrad State Program," and was added temporarily to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) in 1994. It has been extended by the last several Congresses. Legislation has been introduced in the 110th Congress to address the program's expiration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis

Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis

Date: October 7, 2008
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: Currently, federal law prohibits states from granting unauthorized aliens certain postsecondary educational benefits on the basis of state residence, unless equal benefits are made available to all U.S. citizens. This prohibition is commonly understood to apply to the granting of "in-state" residency status for tuition purposes. In the 110th Congress, several bills that would amend this federal law have been introduced. Meanwhile, some states have passed laws aimed at making unauthorized state residents eligible for in-state tuition without violating this provision. This report provides a legal overview of cases involving immigrant access to higher education, as well as an analysis of the legality of state laws that make in-state tuition rates available to illegal immigrants.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Date: May 13, 2008
Creator: Nunez-Neto, Blas
Description: After the massive reorganization of federal agencies precipitated by the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there are now four main federal agencies charged with securing the United States' borders: the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the United States Coast Guard, and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). This report briefly describes each agency's role in securing our nation's borders.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance

Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance

Date: May 13, 2008
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher & Nunez-Neto, Blas
Description: Congress has expressed a great deal of interest in using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to surveil the United States' international land border. This report examines the strengths and limitations of deploying UAVs along the borders and related issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department