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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: February 16, 2010
Creator: Shea, Dana A.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the existing statutory authority and the regulation implementing this authority. It describes several policy issues raised in previous debates regarding chemical facility security. The report identifies policy options that might resolve components of these issues. Finally, legislation introduced in the 111th Congress is discussed.
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U.S. Immigration Policy on Haitian Migrants

U.S. Immigration Policy on Haitian Migrants

Date: March 31, 2010
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses whether the balance should tip more toward humanitarian immigration policies as a consequence of the humanitarian crises that resulted from the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti.
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Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

Date: March 3, 2010
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: This report discusses the United States Border Patrol's history as our nation's first line of defense against unauthorized migration. Today, the USBP's primary mission is to detect and prevent the entry of terrorists, weapons of mass destruction, and illegal aliens into the country, and to interdict drug smugglers and other criminals along the border.
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Alien Removals and Returns: Overview and Trends

Alien Removals and Returns: Overview and Trends

Date: February 3, 2015
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Description: This report provides an overview of the statutory framework for alien removal and briefly describes the standard removal process. It also describes several streamlined forms of removal, and two alternative forms of removal (often referred to as returns) that exempt aliens from certain penalties associated with formal removal: voluntary departure and withdrawal of petition for admission. In addition, the report discusses recent trends in removals and returns, and concludes with a summary of potential avenues for relief from removal.
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U.S. Immigration Policy on Haitian Migrants

U.S. Immigration Policy on Haitian Migrants

Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses whether the balance should tip more toward humanitarian immigration policies as a consequence of the humanitarian crises that resulted from the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti.
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H.R. 399, the Secure Our Borders First Act of 2015: Report in Brief

H.R. 399, the Secure Our Borders First Act of 2015: Report in Brief

Date: January 27, 2015
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa & Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: This report provides a summary of select provisions in the Secure Our Borders First Act of 2015 (H.R. 399), which was introduced on January 16, 2015. On January 21, 2015, an amendment in the nature of a substitute to the bill was offered and marked up. The bill was also reported out of the House Homeland Security Committee on January 21, 2015.
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Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs

Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs

Date: March 16, 2010
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report discusses guest worker programs. The United States has two main programs for temporarily importing low-skilled workers, or guest workers. Agricultural guest workers enter through the H-2A visa program, and other guest workers enter through the H-2B visa program.
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Qualifications for President and the "Natural Born" Citizenship Eligibility Requirement

Qualifications for President and the "Natural Born" Citizenship Eligibility Requirement

Date: November 14, 2011
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Description: This report discusses the history of the qualifications clause in the Federal Convention of 1787, the Common Law meaning of the term "Natural Born" citizen or subject, and common understanding in 18th Century of the term "Natural Born" citizen.
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Alien Legalization and Adjustment of Status: A Primer

Alien Legalization and Adjustment of Status: A Primer

Date: February 2, 2010
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report summarizes the main avenues for foreign nationals currently in the United States--legally or illegally--to become LPRs. Alien legalization or "amnesty," as well as adjustment of status and cancellation of removal options, are briefly discussed. Designed as a primer on the issues, the report provides references to other CRS products that track pertinent legislation and analyze these issues more fully.
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Unauthorized Aliens in the United States

Unauthorized Aliens in the United States

Date: April 27, 2010
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report discusses the unauthorized immigrant (illegal alien) population in the United States, which is a key and controversial immigration issue.
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U.S. Immigration Policy: Chart Book of Key Trends

U.S. Immigration Policy: Chart Book of Key Trends

Date: December 17, 2014
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Description: This report is a chart book of selected immigration trends that touch on the main elements of comprehensive immigration reform (CIR). Most policymakers agree that the main issues in CIR include increased border security and immigration enforcement, improved employment eligibility verification, revision of legal immigration, and options to address the millions of unauthorized aliens residing in the country. The report offers snapshots of time series data, using the most complete and consistent time series currently available for each statistic. The key findings and elements germane to the data depicted are summarized with the figures. The summary offers the highlights of key immigration trends.
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Border Security: Immigration Inspections at Ports of Entry

Border Security: Immigration Inspections at Ports of Entry

Date: January 26, 2015
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa
Description: This report reviews the legislative history of immigration inspections requirements and the entry-exit system. The report then describes the implementation of these provisions, including pre-travel screening, primary and secondary inspections, trusted traveler programs, outbound enforcement, and the entry-exit system. The final section of the report identifies a number of issues for Congress related to immigration admissions and enforcement at ports of entry (POEs).
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People Crossing Borders: An Analysis of U.S. Border Protection Policies

People Crossing Borders: An Analysis of U.S. Border Protection Policies

Date: May 13, 2010
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: This report provides an overview of the current border protection framework and its operationally oriented strategic elements and measures their effectiveness. The report draws on documents from Congress and the Administration, as well as other publications, to pull together an overarching picture of protection at the border. This overview includes a historical background and a definition of what "border protection" means in a contemporary context. Building on this definition, the report provides two theoretical models for border protection approaches based on unilateral and cooperative approaches, followed by an extended analysis of the major elements within the current border protection framework. This analysis also includes discussions of how and why, certain strategic elements notwithstanding, many of the current border-related security policies focus on the physical border rather than conceptualizing the border in broader terms. Lastly, this report offers some policy options--both short-term and long-term--for addressing the effectiveness of current border protection policies.
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Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

Date: May 28, 2010
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: This report discusses the history of Sudan's civil unrest and the subsequent crisis in Darfur, as well as United Nations and United States aid and peacekeeping efforts, and current related policy under the Obama Administration.
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State Challenges to Federal Enforcement of Immigration Law: Historical Precedents and Pending Litigation

State Challenges to Federal Enforcement of Immigration Law: Historical Precedents and Pending Litigation

Date: December 31, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report provides an overview of prior and pending challenges by states to federal officials' alleged failure to enforce the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) or other provisions of immigration law. It begins by discussing the lawsuits filed by six states in the mid-1990s; Arizona's counterclaims to the federal government's suit to enjoin enforcement of S.B. 1070; and Mississippi's challenge to the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) initiative. It then describes the challenge brought by over 20 states in 2014 to the recently announced expansion of DACA and the creation of a similar program for unlawfully present aliens whose children are U.S. citizens or lawful permanent resident aliens (LPRs). The report concludes by exploring how the pending litigation resembles, and differs from, the prior litigation.
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Immigration of Foreign Workers: Labor Market Tests and Protections

Immigration of Foreign Workers: Labor Market Tests and Protections

Date: March 30, 2010
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report examines the current state of employment-based immigration, and discusses its perceived effects on the labor market.
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Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 111th Congress

Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 111th Congress

Date: May 6, 2010
Creator: Bruno, Andorra; Ester, Karma; Haddal, Chad C.; Kim, Yule; Mikyung Lee, Margaret; Siskin, Alison et al.
Description: The 111th Congress has considered various immigration issues and has enacted a number of targeted immigration provisions. It has passed legislation to extend the life of several immigration programs--the E-Verify electronic employment eligibility verification system, the Immigrant Investor Regional Center Program, the Conrad State J-1 Waiver Program, and the special immigrant visa for religious workers--all of which are currently authorized until September 30, 2012. Among the other subjects of legislation enacted by this Congress are refugees and border security. This report discusses these and other immigration-related issues that have seen legislative action or are of significant congressional interest.
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State Efforts to Deter Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Analysis of Arizona's S.B. 1070

State Efforts to Deter Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Analysis of Arizona's S.B. 1070

Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.; Eig, Larry M. & Kim, Yule
Description: This report discusses the major provisions of S.B.1070, as modified by H.B. 2162, and the legal and constitutional considerations possibly implicated by their implementation. The report focuses primarily on those provisions that require state enforcement of federal immigration law and impose criminal penalties for immigration-related conduct, and discusses preemption issues that might be raised by these measures.
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Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry

Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry

Date: December 31, 2014
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa
Description: This report reviews efforts to combat unauthorized migration across the Southwest border in the nearly three decades since the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) initiated the modern era in migration control. In reviewing such efforts, the report takes stock of the current state of border security and considers lessons that may be learned about enhanced enforcement at U.S. borders.
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The President's Immigration Accountability Executive Action of November 20, 2014: Overview and Issues

The President's Immigration Accountability Executive Action of November 20, 2014: Overview and Issues

Date: January 8, 2015
Creator: Kandel, William A.; Bjelopera, Jerome P.; Bruno, Andorra & Siskin, Alison
Description: This report discusses President Obama's Immigration Accountability Executive Action which revises some U.S. immigration policies and initiates several programs, including a revised border security policy for the Southwest border.
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Iraqi and Afghan Special Immigrant Visa Programs

Iraqi and Afghan Special Immigrant Visa Programs

Date: January 20, 2015
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report analyzes the special immigrant visas (SIVs) classifications for Iraqis and Afghans within the context of both the larger INA special immigrant category and selected other permanent admissions categories. It discusses the legislative changes to the individual Iraqi and Afghan special immigrant programs since their initial authorization, provides statistics on visa issuances, and considers challenges that have faced the programs.
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Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues

Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues

Date: January 12, 2015
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa; Ester, Karma & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report is a brief overview of current policies regarding temporary protected status (TPS), which is relief from removal under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). It includes information about humanitarian migrants, temporary protected status, other blanket forms of relief, nationalities receiving protections, and issues with TPS, as well as recent legislation.
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Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion

Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion

Date: January 6, 2011
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses the criteria that foreign nationals must meet before admission to the United States, including the reasons why a foreign national might be denied admission, most particularly on health-related grounds. This report discusses such issues in relation to the recent outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 ("swine flu") virus, and how the outbreak has affected various government agencies, such as the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). This report also discusses efforts to confront and address such issues on a legislative front.
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Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 113th Congress

Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 113th Congress

Date: November 4, 2014
Creator: Bruno, Andorra; Bjelopera, Jerome P.; Garcia, Michael John; Kandel, William A.; Lee, Margaret Mikyung; Siskin, Alison et al.
Description: Immigration reform was an active legislative issue in the first session of the 113th Congress. The Senate passed the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S. 744), a comprehensive immigration reform bill that includes provisions on border security, interior enforcement, employment eligibility verification and worksite enforcement, legalization of unauthorized aliens, immigrant visas, nonimmigrant visas, and humanitarian admissions. For its part, the House took a different approach to immigration reform. Rather than considering a single comprehensive bill, the House acted on a set of immigration bills that address border security, interior enforcement, employment eligibility verification and worksite enforcement, and nonimmigrant and immigrant visas. House committees reported or ordered to be reported the following immigration bills: Border Security Results Act of 2013 (H.R. 1417); Strengthen and Fortify Enforcement (SAFE) Act (H.R. 2278); Legal Workforce Act (H.R. 1772); Agricultural Guestworker (AG) Act (H.R. 1773); and Supplying Knowledge-based Immigrants and Lifting Levels of STEM Visas (SKILLS Visa) Act (H.R. 2131). This report discusses these and other immigration-related issues that received legislative action or have been of significant congressional interest in the 113th Congress.
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