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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.S. Periods of War
Many wars or conflicts in U.S. history have federally designated "periods of war," dates marking their beginning and ending. These dates are important for qualification for certain veterans' pension or disability benefits. This report lists the beginning and ending dates for "periods of war" found in Title 38 of the Code of Federal Regulations, dealing with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). It also lists and differentiates other beginning dates given in declarations of war, as well as termination of hostilities' dates and armistice and ending dates given in proclamations, laws, or treaties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10585/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report is a guide to locating individual service records and military unit histories from the American Revolution to the present. This guide provides referral information for locating individual service records of discharged and deceased veterans. It includes information regarding locating and obtaining active service records. Also included are relevant addresses and websites of government agencies, historical associations, and a select bibliography. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10261/
U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany, and Japan Compared
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10000/
The Strategic Defense Initiative: Program Facts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9601/
The Strategic Defense Initiative: Issues for Phase 1 Deployment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9617/
The Persian Gulf and the U.S. Naval Presence: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9600/
The Iran-Iraq War: Implications for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the Iran-Iraq conflict at its present state, which has become a war of attrition with neither side capable of achieving a decisive military victory over the other in the short term. U.S. policy concerns currently are threefold: first, that Iraq, despite moves to sustain its economic and military capacities, ultimately might suffer a destabilizing defeat to the detriment of U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf region; second, that future instability in Iran could open opportunities for Soviet exploitation; and third, that the conflict might expand beyond its present confines to threaten friendly regional states and the availability of their vast petroleum resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9596/
The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform
This report discusses the Group of Eight (G8) summit, which is a forum to informally discuss and create policies on major foreign policy issues among the heads of state of the United States, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Russia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9983/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress
This report discusses the key role Congress played in formulating an aid program for the former Soviet Union in 1992. Focusing on tensions in the political and legislative system, it delineates congressional achievements — chief of which was the Freedom Support Act. The legislation that was ultimately produced became the basis on which future debate would be conducted regarding how the United States could continue to influence events in the former Soviet Union and assist its transition to an open market economy and democratic institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9655/
U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany, and Japan Compared
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9976/
The Strategic Defense Initiative: Program Facts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9591/
The Strategic Defense Initiative: Issues for Phase 1 Deployment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9608/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress
This report discusses the key role Congress played in formulating an aid program for the former Soviet Union in 1992. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9651/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report is a guide to locating individual service records and military unit histories from the American Revolution to the present. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9874/
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9524/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9500/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9499/
Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9474/
Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9473/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9471/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9470/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9467/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9468/
FEMA Reorganization Legislation in the 109th Congress
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Members of Congress and others raised questions about the scope and reach of federal emergency management policies, the procedures used to administer federal statutory authorities, the qualifications of personnel, and other issues. Most of the questions focused on the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the agency primarily responsible for coordinating federal and non-federal disaster response activities. This report provides information on provisions of the Senate-approved amendment (S.Amdt. 4560) to the FY2007 appropriations bill, H.R. 5316, and H.R. 5351 that address concerns identified after Hurricane Katrina. To provide a context for information on the legislation, this report first summarizes findings and recommendations of the congressional and White House studies pertinent to the pending legislation reported from the House committees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9458/
Lebanon: The Israel-Hamas-Hezbollah Conflict
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9558/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9444/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9554/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9443/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report is a guide to locating individual service records and military unit histories from the American Revolution to the present. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9541/
Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options
This report provides background information about the establishment and evolution of federal emergency management and related homeland security organization since 1950. Post-Katrina assessments of current arrangements by Congress and the White House are also discussed. Finally, the report provides a brief summary of related legislation that had been introduced as of July 17, 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9422/
Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options
This report provides background information about the establishment and evolution of federal emergency management and related homeland security organization since 1950. Post-Katrina assessments of current arrangements by Congress and the White House are also discussed. Finally, the report provides a brief summary of related legislation that had been introduced as of July 17, 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9421/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9404/
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9389/
Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List
Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9387/
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2006
From FY1989 through FY2006, 33 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $55.4 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The two most recent supplemental appropriations were provided in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the Gulf of Mexico and in preparation for a possible U.S. outbreak of avian influenza. Some FY1989, the vast majority of the total supplemental funding has been paid directly to farmers, primarily through two mechanisms: "market loss payments" and crop disaster payments. This report includes the total annual funding additions in the 33 acts providing economic and farm disaster assistance through USDA programs since FY1989. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9308/
Iraq: International Attitudes to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Reconstruction
Although there was widespread international disagreement in the period leading up to the U.S.-led war in Iraq, forty-nine countries demonstrated support for the coalition’s actions in Iraq by publicly agreeing to be included in the Bush Administration’s “coalition of the willing." This report tracks countries’ current political stances on the postwar situation, as well as major foreign monetary and military contributions to postwar Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9292/
Speech Material -- Fourth of July
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9233/
Soviet Policy Under Andropov
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9189/
Soviet Pipeline
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9171/
South Africa: A Chronology
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9197/
Periods of War
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9216/
Oil Shale: History, Incentives, and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9211/
Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-2002
This report discusses legislation regarding commodities and price supports. Since 1933, Congress has required the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to administer various price and income support programs for U.S. farmers. Some standing authority for these programs is provided by three permanent laws, from 1938, 1948, and 1949. However, Congress frequently alters the basic provisions of these laws. The omnibus law now guiding farm support (through 2007) is the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8523/
Iran-Contra Affair: Biographical Profiles
This report provides biographical information on individuals who have been associated in public reports with the controversy surrounding the secret U.S. arms sales to Iran and the channeling of profits to the rebels or Contras in Nicaragua. The information has been compiled from public sources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8423/
The Alien Tort Statute: Legislative History and Executive Branch Views
The report provides a historical overview of court decisions interpreting the Alien Tort Statute (ATS), also known as the Alien Tort Claims Act (ACTA). The report then provides an overview of the positions taken by the U.S. government in published opinions of the Attorney General and in court briefs related to ATS claims. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8433/
Liberia: 1989-1997 Civil War, Post-War Developments, and U.S. Relations
This report covers Liberia’s first civil conflict (1989-1997), post-war developments until roughly 2001, and the history of U.S.-Liberian relations and U.S. policy toward Liberia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8431/
Military and Civilian Satellites in Support of Allied Forces in the Persian Gulf War
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7996/
War Bonds in the Second World War: A Model for Hurricane Recovery Bonds?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7755/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7746/
Initial Federal Budget Response to the 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor
This report discusses initial federal budget response to attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, which occurred as the federal government was half way through FY1942. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7567/