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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9389/
Speech Material -- Fourth of July
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9233/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7746/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9554/
China's Prospects After Tiananmen Square: Current Conditions, Future Scenarios, and a Survey of Expert Opinion
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Military Tribunals: Historical Patterns and Lessons
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5797/
The Alien Tort Statute: Legislative History and Executive Branch Views
The report provides a historical overview of court decisions interpreting the Alien Tort Statute (ATS), also known as the Alien Tort Claims Act (ACTA). The report then provides an overview of the positions taken by the U.S. government in published opinions of the Attorney General and in court briefs related to ATS claims. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8433/
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
This report reviews the ongoing programs that will affect the expected size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force structure. It begins with an overview of this force structure during the Cold War, and summarizes the reductions and changes that have occurred since 1991. It then offers details about each category of delivery vehicle, focusing on their current deployments and ongoing and planned modernization programs. The report concludes with a discussion of issues related to decisions about the future size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33058/
Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-98
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs830/
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
This report reviews the ongoing programs that will affect the expected size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force structure. It begins with an overview of this force structure during the Cold War, and summarizes the reductions and changes that have occurred since 1991. It then offers details about each category of delivery vehicle, focusing on their current deployments and ongoing and planned modernization programs. The report concludes with a discussion of issues related to decisions about the future size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40218/
Historic Preservation: Background and Funding
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Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options
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Legislative History of the World War II Memorial and World War II Commemorative Legislation
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Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9421/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9404/
Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-2002
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8523/
FEMA Reorganization Legislation in the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9458/
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2006
From FY1989 through FY2006, 33 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $55.4 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The two most recent supplemental appropriations were provided in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the Gulf of Mexico and in preparation for a possible U.S. outbreak of avian influenza. Some FY1989, the vast majority of the total supplemental funding has been paid directly to farmers, primarily through two mechanisms: "market loss payments" and crop disaster payments. This report includes the total annual funding additions in the 33 acts providing economic and farm disaster assistance through USDA programs since FY1989. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9308/
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
This report reviews the ongoing programs that will affect the expected size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force structure. It begins with an overview of this force structure during the Cold War, and summarizes the reductions and changes that have occurred since 1991. It then offers details about each category of delivery vehicle, focusing on their current deployments and ongoing and planned modernization programs. The report concludes with a discussion of issues related to decisions about the future size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26248/
The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9959/
The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform
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Persian Gulf War: Defense-Policy Implications for Congress
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German Unification
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7364/
The Unification of Germany: Background and Analysis of the Two-Plus-Four Talks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7363/
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
This report reviews the ongoing programs that will affect the expected size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force structure. It begins with an overview of this force structure during the Cold War, and summarizes the reductions and changes that have occurred since 1991. It then offers details about each category of delivery vehicle, focusing on their current deployments and ongoing and planned modernization programs. The report concludes with a discussion of issues related to decisions about the future size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103199/
Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004
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Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5969/
Periods of War
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9216/
U.S. Periods of War
Many wars or conflicts in U.S. history have federally designated "periods of war," dates marking their beginning and ending. These dates are important for qualification for certain veterans' pension or disability benefits. This report lists the beginning and ending dates for "periods of war" found in Title 38 of the Code of Federal Regulations, dealing with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). It also lists and differentiates other beginning dates given in declarations of war, as well as termination of hostilities' dates and armistice and ending dates given in proclamations, laws, or treaties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10585/
U.S. Periods of War
Many wars or conflicts in U.S. history have federally designated "periods of war," dates marking their beginning and ending. This report lists the beginning and ending dates for "periods of war" found in Title 38 of the Code of Federal Regulations, dealing with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). It also lists and differentiates other beginning dates given in declarations of war, as well as termination of hostilities dates and armistice and ending dates given in proclamations, laws, or treaties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31444/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9651/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9655/
Holocaust-Era Insurance Claims: Background and Proposed Legislation
This report aims to inform consideration of H.R. 890 and S. 466 and possible alternatives by providing: background on Holocaust-era compensation and restitution issues; an overview of the International Commission on Holocaust Era Insurance Claims (ICHEIC), including criticism and support of its claims process and Administration policy on ICHEIC; and an overview of litigation on Holocaust-era insurance claims and the proposed legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96801/
Iraq: International Attitudes to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Reconstruction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9292/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9500/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9499/
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9524/
The FY2007 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9491/
The FY2007 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9490/
Oil Shale: History, Incentives, and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9211/
The Persian Gulf and the U.S. Naval Presence: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9600/
Desert Shield and Desert Storm Implications for Future U.S. Force Requirements
This preliminary assessment summarizes U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps performances during recent war, then relates it to past experience and potential threats in ways that might help decisionmakers determine the most suitable characteristics of U.S. armed forces for the rest of this decade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6962/
Initial Federal Budget Response to the 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7567/
Military and Civilian Satellites in Support of Allied Forces in the Persian Gulf War
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7996/
Soviet Policy Under Andropov
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9189/
Soviet Pipeline
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9171/
War Bonds in the Second World War: A Model for Hurricane Recovery Bonds?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7755/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9444/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9443/
Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9473/