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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Africa Backgrounder: History, U.S. Policy, Principal Congressional Actions

Africa Backgrounder: History, U.S. Policy, Principal Congressional Actions

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Copson, Raymond W.
Description: Congressional interest in Africa seems certain to continue, not only because the region is affected by a number of serious problems, some of which could have grave humanitarian consequences, but also because of the potential Africa offers for U.S. trade and investment should these problems ease. Africa's problems and prospects will likely assure continuing constituent interest as well, stimulated in part by the churches, relief organizations, and other non-governmental organizations active on African issues. This report is intended to introduce congressional readers to the region by providing an overview of Africa's history, a summary of U.S. policy toward Africa, and a listing of principal congressional actions affecting the region. The paper concludes with suggestions for further reading and a list of selected Congressional Research Service (CRS) products.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Alien Tort Statute: Legislative History and Executive Branch Views

The Alien Tort Statute: Legislative History and Executive Branch Views

Date: October 2, 2003
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K
Description: The report provides a historical overview of court decisions interpreting the Alien Tort Statute (ATS), also known as the Alien Tort Claims Act (ACTA). The report then provides an overview of the positions taken by the U.S. government in published opinions of the Attorney General and in court briefs related to ATS claims.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Frazier-Thompson, Judith B
Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

Date: July 14, 2008
Creator: Belasco
Description: This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Belasco, Amy
Description: This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Belasco, Amy
Description: This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

Date: September 22, 2006
Creator: Belasco, Amy
Description: This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Date: August 11, 2006
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K & Grimmett, Richard F
Description: This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2006

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2006

Date: July 3, 2006
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: From FY1989 through FY2006, 33 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $55.4 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The two most recent supplemental appropriations were provided in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the Gulf of Mexico and in preparation for a possible U.S. outbreak of avian influenza. Some FY1989, the vast majority of the total supplemental funding has been paid directly to farmers, primarily through two mechanisms: "market loss payments" and crop disaster payments. This report includes the total annual funding additions in the 33 acts providing economic and farm disaster assistance through USDA programs since FY1989.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-2002

Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-2002

Date: May 31, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses legislation regarding commodities and price supports. Since 1933, Congress has required the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to administer various price and income support programs for U.S. farmers. Some standing authority for these programs is provided by three permanent laws, from 1938, 1948, and 1949. However, Congress frequently alters the basic provisions of these laws. The omnibus law now guiding farm support (through 2007) is the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options

Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options

Date: July 18, 2006
Creator: Hogue, Henry B & Bea, Keith
Description: This report provides background information about the establishment and evolution of federal emergency management and related homeland security organization since 1950. Post-Katrina assessments of current arrangements by Congress and the White House are also discussed. Finally, the report provides a brief summary of related legislation that had been introduced as of July 17, 2006.
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Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options

Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options

Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Hogue, Henry B & Bea, Keith
Description: This report provides background information about the establishment and evolution of federal emergency management and related homeland security organization since 1950. Post-Katrina assessments of current arrangements by Congress and the White House are also discussed. Finally, the report provides a brief summary of related legislation that had been introduced as of July 17, 2006.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
FEMA Reorganization Legislation in the 109th Congress

FEMA Reorganization Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: July 12, 2006
Creator: Bea, Keith & Hogue, Henry B
Description: In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Members of Congress and others raised questions about the scope and reach of federal emergency management policies, the procedures used to administer federal statutory authorities, the qualifications of personnel, and other issues. Most of the questions focused on the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the agency primarily responsible for coordinating federal and non-federal disaster response activities. This report provides information on provisions of the Senate-approved amendment (S.Amdt. 4560) to the FY2007 appropriations bill, H.R. 5316, and H.R. 5351 that address concerns identified after Hurricane Katrina. To provide a context for information on the legislation, this report first summarizes findings and recommendations of the congressional and White House studies pertinent to the pending legislation reported from the House committees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financing Issues and Economic Effects of American Wars

Financing Issues and Economic Effects of American Wars

Date: July 29, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Levit, Mindy
Description: This report examines financing and economic issues in World War II, the Korean Conflict, the Vietnam Conflict, the Reagan Military Buildup, and the 1991 and 2003 wars in Iraq. It examines tax policy, non-military outlays, the budget balance, economic growth, inflation, and interest rates during these periods.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress

The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress

Date: May 20, 2004
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: This report discusses the key role Congress played in formulating an aid program for the former Soviet Union in 1992. Focusing on tensions in the political and legislative system, it delineates congressional achievements — chief of which was the Freedom Support Act. The legislation that was ultimately produced became the basis on which future debate would be conducted regarding how the United States could continue to influence events in the former Soviet Union and assist its transition to an open market economy and democratic institutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress

The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress

Date: May 20, 2004
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: This report discusses the key role Congress played in formulating an aid program for the former Soviet Union in 1992.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform

The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform

Date: March 17, 2006
Creator: Weiss, Martin A
Description: This report discusses the Group of Eight (G8) summit, which is a forum to informally discuss and create policies on major foreign policy issues among the heads of state of the United States, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Russia.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Historic Preservation: Background and Funding

Historic Preservation: Background and Funding

Date: January 5, 2005
Creator: Boren, Susan
Description: This report summarizes the federal role in historic preservation. It provides descriptions of and funding information for some of the major preservation programs, including the Historic Preservation Fund (HPF), the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the National Register for Historic Places. Some Members of Congress have given historic preservation programs close scrutiny and have recommended that historic preservation activities be supported increasingly by the private sector.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Historic Preservation: Background and Funding

Historic Preservation: Background and Funding

Date: August 11, 2003
Creator: Boren, Susan
Description: This report summarizes the federal role in historic preservation. It provides descriptions of and funding information for some of the major preservation programs, including the Historic Preservation Fund (HPF), the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the National Register for Historic Places.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Historic Preservation: Background and Funding

Historic Preservation: Background and Funding

Date: January 22, 2007
Creator: Boren, Susan
Description: This report summarizes the federal role in historic preservation. It provides descriptions of and funding information for some of the major preservation programs, including the Historic Preservation Fund (HPF), the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the National Register for Historic Places. Some Members of Congress have given historic preservation programs close scrutiny and have recommended that historic preservation activities be supported increasingly by the private sector.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes

A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes

Date: August 9, 2001
Creator: Luckey, John R
Description: In this report, the history of the federal transfer taxes, has been divided into four parts: (1) the federal death and gift taxes utilized in the period 1789 to 1915; (2) the development of the modern estate and gift taxes from 1916 through 1975; (3) the creation and refinement of a unified estate and gift tax system, supplemented by a generation-skipping transfer tax; and (4) the phase out and repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes, with the gift tax being retained as a device to protect the integrity of the income tax.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes

A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes

Date: April 9, 2003
Creator: Luckey, John R
Description: In this report, the history of the federal transfer taxes, has been divided into four parts: (1) the federal death and gift taxes utilized in the period 1789 to 1915; (2) the development of the modern estate and gift taxes from 1916 through 1975; (3) the creation and refinement of a unified estate and gift tax system, supplemented by a generation-skipping transfer tax; and (4) the phase out and repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes, with the gift tax being retained as a device to protect the integrity of the income tax.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Holocaust-Era Assets: A Guide for Filing Claims and a List of Compensation Programs

Holocaust-Era Assets: A Guide for Filing Claims and a List of Compensation Programs

Date: August 15, 2000
Creator: Salazar, Barbara A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Holocaust-Era Insurance Claims: Background and Proposed Legislation

Holocaust-Era Insurance Claims: Background and Proposed Legislation

Date: July 21, 2008
Creator: Belkin, Paul; Carpenter, David H.; Rubin, Janice E. & Webel, Baird
Description: This report aims to inform consideration of H.R. 1746 and possible alternatives by providing: background on Holocaust-era compensation and restitution issues; an overview of the International Commission on Holocaust Era Insurance Claims (ICHEIC), including criticism and support of its claims process and Administration policy on ICHEIC; and an overview of litigation on Holocaust-era insurance claims and the proposed legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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