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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Summary of Major Changes in the Social Security Cash Benefits Program: 1935-1996
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs357/
American Federalism, 1776 to 1997: Significant Events
This report identifies several significant eras and events in the evolution of American federalism and provides a capsule description or discussion of each. It should be noted that among experts in the field of federalism there may be a general consensus concerning the evolution of American federalism; however, the choice of events and scholarly interpretations of such events may vary and are by nature subjective. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs490/
Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-98
Farm commodity programs were a product of the Great Depression. This report discusses the history of farm commodity legislation. Since 1933, Congress has required the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) to administer a variety of programs providing price support and income protection for the nations farmers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs830/
Spinning the Web: The History and Infrastructure of the Internet
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The Holocaust--Recovery of Assets from World War II: A Chronology (May 1995 to Present)
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Holocaust-Era Assets: A Guide for Filing Claims and a List of Compensation Programs
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Africa Backgrounder: History, U.S. Policy, Principal Congressional Actions
Congressional interest in Africa seems certain to continue, not only because the region is affected by a number of serious problems, some of which could have grave humanitarian consequences, but also because of the potential Africa offers for U.S. trade and investment should these problems ease. Africa's problems and prospects will likely assure continuing constituent interest as well, stimulated in part by the churches, relief organizations, and other non-governmental organizations active on African issues. This report is intended to introduce congressional readers to the region by providing an overview of Africa's history, a summary of U.S. policy toward Africa, and a listing of principal congressional actions affecting the region. The paper concludes with suggestions for further reading and a list of selected Congressional Research Service (CRS) products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1821/
A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes
In this report, the history of the federal transfer taxes, has been divided into four parts: (1) the federal death and gift taxes utilized in the period 1789 to 1915; (2) the development of the modern estate and gift taxes from 1916 through 1975; (3) the creation and refinement of a unified estate and gift tax system, supplemented by a generation-skipping transfer tax; and (4) the phase out and repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes, with the gift tax being retained as a device to protect the integrity of the income tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1946/
Initial Federal Budget Response to the 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor
This report discusses initial federal budget response to attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, which occurred as the federal government was half way through FY1942. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7567/
The Stock Market's Response to Dramatic Historical Events
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Legislative History of the World War II Memorial and World War II Commemorative Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3152/
Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-2002
This report discusses legislation regarding commodities and price supports. Since 1933, Congress has required the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to administer various price and income support programs for U.S. farmers. Some standing authority for these programs is provided by three permanent laws, from 1938, 1948, and 1949. However, Congress frequently alters the basic provisions of these laws. The omnibus law now guiding farm support (through 2007) is the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8523/
U.S. Use of Preemptive Military Force
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U.S. Use of Preemptive Military Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4326/
A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes
In this report, the history of the federal transfer taxes, has been divided into four parts: (1) the federal death and gift taxes utilized in the period 1789 to 1915; (2) the development of the modern estate and gift taxes from 1916 through 1975; (3) the creation and refinement of a unified estate and gift tax system, supplemented by a generation-skipping transfer tax; and (4) the phase out and repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes, with the gift tax being retained as a device to protect the integrity of the income tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5392/
U.S. Use of Preemptive Military Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4327/
Historic Preservation: Background and Funding
This report summarizes the federal role in historic preservation. It provides descriptions of and funding information for some of the major preservation programs, including the Historic Preservation Fund (HPF), the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the National Register for Historic Places. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3935/
The Alien Tort Statute: Legislative History and Executive Branch Views
The report provides a historical overview of court decisions interpreting the Alien Tort Statute (ATS), also known as the Alien Tort Claims Act (ACTA). The report then provides an overview of the positions taken by the U.S. government in published opinions of the Attorney General and in court briefs related to ATS claims. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8433/
Iraq: International Attitudes to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Reconstruction
Although there was widespread international disagreement in the period leading up to the U.S.-led war in Iraq, forty-nine countries demonstrated support for the coalition’s actions in Iraq by publicly agreeing to be included in the Bush Administration’s “coalition of the willing." This report tracks countries’ current political stances on the postwar situation, as well as major foreign monetary and military contributions to postwar Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9292/
Liberia: 1989-1997 Civil War, Post-War Developments, and U.S. Relations
This report covers Liberia’s first civil conflict (1989-1997), post-war developments until roughly 2001, and the history of U.S.-Liberian relations and U.S. policy toward Liberia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8431/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress
This report discusses the key role Congress played in formulating an aid program for the former Soviet Union in 1992. Focusing on tensions in the political and legislative system, it delineates congressional achievements — chief of which was the Freedom Support Act. The legislation that was ultimately produced became the basis on which future debate would be conducted regarding how the United States could continue to influence events in the former Soviet Union and assist its transition to an open market economy and democratic institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9655/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress
This report discusses the key role Congress played in formulating an aid program for the former Soviet Union in 1992. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9651/
Military Tribunals: Historical Patterns and Lessons
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Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004
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Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5970/
Historic Preservation: Background and Funding
This report summarizes the federal role in historic preservation. It provides descriptions of and funding information for some of the major preservation programs, including the Historic Preservation Fund (HPF), the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the National Register for Historic Places. Some Members of Congress have given historic preservation programs close scrutiny and have recommended that historic preservation activities be supported increasingly by the private sector. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795579/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7746/
War Bonds in the Second World War: A Model for Hurricane Recovery Bonds?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7755/
The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform
This report discusses the Group of Eight (G8) summit, which is a forum to informally discuss and create policies on major foreign policy issues among the heads of state of the United States, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Russia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9983/
U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany, and Japan Compared
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U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany, and Japan Compared
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9976/
Oil Shale: History, Incentives, and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9211/
Periods of War
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Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2006
From FY1989 through FY2006, 33 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $55.4 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The two most recent supplemental appropriations were provided in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the Gulf of Mexico and in preparation for a possible U.S. outbreak of avian influenza. Some FY1989, the vast majority of the total supplemental funding has been paid directly to farmers, primarily through two mechanisms: "market loss payments" and crop disaster payments. This report includes the total annual funding additions in the 33 acts providing economic and farm disaster assistance through USDA programs since FY1989. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9308/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9467/
Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
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FEMA Reorganization Legislation in the 109th Congress
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Members of Congress and others raised questions about the scope and reach of federal emergency management policies, the procedures used to administer federal statutory authorities, the qualifications of personnel, and other issues. Most of the questions focused on the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the agency primarily responsible for coordinating federal and non-federal disaster response activities. This report provides information on provisions of the Senate-approved amendment (S.Amdt. 4560) to the FY2007 appropriations bill, H.R. 5316, and H.R. 5351 that address concerns identified after Hurricane Katrina. To provide a context for information on the legislation, this report first summarizes findings and recommendations of the congressional and White House studies pertinent to the pending legislation reported from the House committees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9458/
Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options
This report provides background information about the establishment and evolution of federal emergency management and related homeland security organization since 1950. Post-Katrina assessments of current arrangements by Congress and the White House are also discussed. Finally, the report provides a brief summary of related legislation that had been introduced as of July 17, 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9422/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9470/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9444/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9404/
Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options
This report provides background information about the establishment and evolution of federal emergency management and related homeland security organization since 1950. Post-Katrina assessments of current arrangements by Congress and the White House are also discussed. Finally, the report provides a brief summary of related legislation that had been introduced as of July 17, 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9421/
Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9473/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9468/
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9389/
Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List
Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9387/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9443/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9499/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9471/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report is a guide to locating individual service records and military unit histories from the American Revolution to the present. This guide provides referral information for locating individual service records of discharged and deceased veterans. It includes information regarding locating and obtaining active service records. Also included are relevant addresses and websites of government agencies, historical associations, and a select bibliography. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10261/