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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Stock Market's Response to Dramatic Historical Events
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6989/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9874/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report is a guide to locating individual service records and military unit histories from the American Revolution to the present. This guide provides referral information for locating individual service records of discharged and deceased veterans. It includes information regarding locating and obtaining active service records. Also included are relevant addresses and websites of government agencies, historical associations, and a select bibliography. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10261/
A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes
In this report, the history of the federal transfer taxes, has been divided into four parts: (1) the federal death and gift taxes utilized in the period 1789 to 1915; (2) the development of the modern estate and gift taxes from 1916 through 1975; (3) the creation and refinement of a unified estate and gift tax system, supplemented by a generation-skipping transfer tax; and (4) the phase out and repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes, with the gift tax being retained as a device to protect the integrity of the income tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5392/
A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes
In this report, the history of the federal transfer taxes, has been divided into four parts: (1) the federal death and gift taxes utilized in the period 1789 to 1915; (2) the development of the modern estate and gift taxes from 1916 through 1975; (3) the creation and refinement of a unified estate and gift tax system, supplemented by a generation-skipping transfer tax; and (4) the phase out and repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes, with the gift tax being retained as a device to protect the integrity of the income tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1946/
Holocaust-Era Assets: A Guide for Filing Claims and a List of Compensation Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1248/
The Holocaust--Recovery of Assets from World War II: A Chronology (May 1995 to Present)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1247/
Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List
Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9387/
U.S. Use of Preemptive Military Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4327/
U.S. Use of Preemptive Military Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4326/
U.S. Use of Preemptive Military Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2545/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9541/
Africa Backgrounder: History, U.S. Policy, Principal Congressional Actions
Congressional interest in Africa seems certain to continue, not only because the region is affected by a number of serious problems, some of which could have grave humanitarian consequences, but also because of the potential Africa offers for U.S. trade and investment should these problems ease. Africa's problems and prospects will likely assure continuing constituent interest as well, stimulated in part by the churches, relief organizations, and other non-governmental organizations active on African issues. This report is intended to introduce congressional readers to the region by providing an overview of Africa's history, a summary of U.S. policy toward Africa, and a listing of principal congressional actions affecting the region. The paper concludes with suggestions for further reading and a list of selected Congressional Research Service (CRS) products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1821/
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9389/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7746/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9554/
Military Tribunals: Historical Patterns and Lessons
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5797/
The Alien Tort Statute: Legislative History and Executive Branch Views
The report provides a historical overview of court decisions interpreting the Alien Tort Statute (ATS), also known as the Alien Tort Claims Act (ACTA). The report then provides an overview of the positions taken by the U.S. government in published opinions of the Attorney General and in court briefs related to ATS claims. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8433/
Historic Preservation: Background and Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3935/
Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9422/
Legislative History of the World War II Memorial and World War II Commemorative Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3152/
Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9421/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9404/
Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-2002
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8523/
FEMA Reorganization Legislation in the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9458/
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2006
From FY1989 through FY2006, 33 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $55.4 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The two most recent supplemental appropriations were provided in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the Gulf of Mexico and in preparation for a possible U.S. outbreak of avian influenza. Some FY1989, the vast majority of the total supplemental funding has been paid directly to farmers, primarily through two mechanisms: "market loss payments" and crop disaster payments. This report includes the total annual funding additions in the 33 acts providing economic and farm disaster assistance through USDA programs since FY1989. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9308/
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
This report reviews the ongoing programs that will affect the expected size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force structure. It begins with an overview of this force structure during the Cold War, and summarizes the reductions and changes that have occurred since 1991. It then offers details about each category of delivery vehicle, focusing on their current deployments and ongoing and planned modernization programs. The report concludes with a discussion of issues related to decisions about the future size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26248/
The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9959/
The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9983/
Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5970/
Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5969/
Periods of War
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9216/
U.S. Periods of War
Many wars or conflicts in U.S. history have federally designated "periods of war," dates marking their beginning and ending. These dates are important for qualification for certain veterans' pension or disability benefits. This report lists the beginning and ending dates for "periods of war" found in Title 38 of the Code of Federal Regulations, dealing with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). It also lists and differentiates other beginning dates given in declarations of war, as well as termination of hostilities' dates and armistice and ending dates given in proclamations, laws, or treaties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10585/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9651/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9655/
Iraq: International Attitudes to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Reconstruction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9292/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9500/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9499/
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9524/
The FY2007 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9491/
The FY2007 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9490/
Oil Shale: History, Incentives, and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9211/
Initial Federal Budget Response to the 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7567/
War Bonds in the Second World War: A Model for Hurricane Recovery Bonds?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7755/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9444/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9443/
Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9473/
Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9474/
Liberia: 1989-1997 Civil War, Post-War Developments, and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8431/
Vietnamese Victims of Agent Orange and U.S.-Vietnam Relations
This report examines various estimates of the effects that the herbicide Agent Orange has had on Vietnam's people and environment, the history of U.S. policy on the issue, the current clean up efforts in Vietnam, the various forms of assistance -- including U.S. assistance -- provided to people with medical conditions associated with dioxin exposure, and the implications for bilateral relations. It concludes with a brief discussion of possible congressional responses to the issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26299/
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