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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Education Proposals in Trade Competitiveness Legislation

Education Proposals in Trade Competitiveness Legislation

Date: May 4, 1988
Creator: Irwin, Paul M & Riddle, Wayne C
Description: Improvement on America's competitive position in international trade is one of the major issues confronting the 100th Congress. Most legislative proposals have included provisions for increasing the funding levels for Federal education programs, expanding current programs, or authorizing new programs. The primary goal is to improve the productivity of the Nation's workers by raising the skill level of the workforce. Discussions about education's role i n addressing the competitiveness issue have included the contribution of education to productivity growth, comparisons of the educational achievement of American school children with that of their peers in other nations , the educational needs of illiterate adults , and the role of technology in education.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education: Federal Concerns

Education: Federal Concerns

Date: April 12, 1988
Creator: Evans, Angela
Description: This issue brief analyzes six areas in which Federal policies to address the educational system's current needs are being fashioned (1) services for disadvantaged youth, (2) the financing of post-secondary education, ( 3 ) the level of Federal appropriations for education, ( 4 ) responses to adult illiteracy, (5) international economic competitiveness, and (6) the role of vocational education.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal and Non-Federal Support of University Based Research

Federal and Non-Federal Support of University Based Research

Date: June 4, 2004
Creator: Davey, Michael E
Description: While the federal government continues to be the primary supporter of university based research and development (R&D), the financial composition of support for university-based research has changed considerably over the past 31 years. This report discusses national R&D expenditures for university based research, which reached $36.333 billion in 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education: Background and Funding

Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education: Background and Funding

Date: April 5, 2005
Creator: Mangan, Bonnie F.
Description: The Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) supports projects to encourage innovative reform and expand education opportunities to underrepresented groups. This report describes the historical context leading to the establishment of the Fund for Improvement of Postsecondary Education, provisions governing the program, and the variety of projects funded by FIPSE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Date: May 22, 2006
Creator: Kuenzi, Jeffrey J; Matthews, Christine M & Mangan, Bonnie F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Standardized Educational Test Scores

Standardized Educational Test Scores

Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Congressional Reference Division
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Campus-Based Financial Aid Programs: A Review and Analysis of the Allocation of Funds to Institutions and the Distribution of Aid to Students

The Campus-Based Financial Aid Programs: A Review and Analysis of the Allocation of Funds to Institutions and the Distribution of Aid to Students

Date: February 18, 2005
Creator: Smole, David P
Description: This report describes and analyzes (a) the process through which federal funds are allocated to institutions under the campus-based programs, (b) the potential for allocating all campus-based funding according to the existing need-based formulas, and (c) the current distribution of aid to students. It will be updated to track legislative proposals addressing the campus-based allocation procedures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Student Drug Testing: Constitutional Issues

Student Drug Testing: Constitutional Issues

Date: July 15, 2002
Creator: Dale, Charles V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: Kuenzi, Jeffrey J; Matthews, Christine M & Mangan, Bonnie F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: September 14, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: Kuenzi, Jeffrey J; Matthews, Christine M & Mangan, Bonnie F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: September 14, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Date: October 19, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Date: October 11, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987: Legal Analysis of S.557

The Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987: Legal Analysis of S.557

Date: March 1, 1988
Creator: Lewis, Karen J & Dale, Charles V
Description: The Senate i n January 1988 passed S. 557 with amendments to “restore the...broad institution – wide application" of certain federal civil rights laws in the wake of t h e U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Grove City College v. Bell . This report discusses the background and contents of this legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: January 12, 2007
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The scientific community has been divided over proposals to impose stricter immigration limits on people with scientific and technical skills. Attempts to settle upon the balance between the needs for a highly skilled scientific and technical workforce, and the need to protect and ensure job opportunities, salaries, and working conditions of U.S. scientific personnel, will continue to be debated. This report addresses these issues and their implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Concurrent Enrollment Programs

Concurrent Enrollment Programs

Date: December 14, 2004
Creator: Mercer, Charmaine
Description: Initiated in part as a proposal to reform U.S. high schools, concurrent enrollment programs enable high school aged students to take college level course work and receive college credit while enrolled in high school. Concurrent enrollment programs can be best described as a secondary/postsecondary school hybrid. This report provides a brief history of these programs and a description of the different types of programs, including participation data.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals

School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals

Date: October 24, 2005
Creator: Boren, Susan
Description: The federal government's role in financing school construction and renovation continues to be an issue in the 109th Congress, although school construction has generally been considered a state and local responsibility. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the unmet need for school construction and renovation is estimated to be $127 billion. NCES indicates that three-quarters of the nation's schools report needing funds to bring their buildings into a "good overall condition." Indirect federal support for school construction is currently provided by exempting the interest on state and local governmental bonds from federal income taxes, as well as other tax code provisions. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, an estimated 400 schools need to be rebuilt in Louisiana and Mississippi.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: September 14, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Date: October 19, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: Issues and legislation related to foreign students continue to arise. The funding and English-language competency of foreign students have raised concerns with some universities, advocacy groups, and other observers. Additionally, some recent legislation has focused on attracting foreign students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Legislation passed in the Senate (S. 2611) would create pathways to citizenship for foreign students in the STEM fields of study. Although there are provisions in this legislation for undergraduate students, the major focus has been on students obtaining advanced degrees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D.
Description: Palestinian education reform is often seen as a key element in internal Palestinian reform and the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, as well as in broader U.S. interests in the region. Concerns over Palestinian Authority (PA) textbooks often cite examples of anti-Jewish education materials and a lack of reference to or positive acknowledgment of the state of Israel. Overall, some analysts allege that PA textbooks spread a culture of violence that prizes martyrdom. Palestinian curriculum reform is an important element in the broader U.S. policy of promoting Middle East democracy and governance reforms. Palestinian curriculum development is relevant to congressional concerns about the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, levels of U.S. assistance to the Palestinians, U.N. reforms in the Palestinian Territories, and the broader U.S. promotion of democracy in the Middle East.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis

Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis

Date: October 7, 2008
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: Currently, federal law prohibits states from granting unauthorized aliens certain postsecondary educational benefits on the basis of state residence, unless equal benefits are made available to all U.S. citizens. This prohibition is commonly understood to apply to the granting of "in-state" residency status for tuition purposes. In the 110th Congress, several bills that would amend this federal law have been introduced. Meanwhile, some states have passed laws aimed at making unauthorized state residents eligible for in-state tuition without violating this provision. This report provides a legal overview of cases involving immigrant access to higher education, as well as an analysis of the legality of state laws that make in-state tuition rates available to illegal immigrants.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department