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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
A Brief History of Veterans' Education Benefits and Their Value

A Brief History of Veterans' Education Benefits and Their Value

Date: June 25, 2008
Creator: Smole, David P. & Loane, Shannon S.
Description: This report reviews the evolution of veterans' education benefit programs and describes the types of education benefits that have been made available under these programs. It also examines how changes in the estimated value of these benefits compares with changes in average college prices, and provides a discussion of the interaction between veterans' education benefits and federal student aid benefits made available under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA), as amended.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tax Treatment of Employer Educational Assistance for the Benefit of Employees

Tax Treatment of Employer Educational Assistance for the Benefit of Employees

Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: Educational assistance offered by employers to their employees may be exempt from federal income tax under Section 127 and Section 132 of the Internal Revenue Code. Section 127 is the employer educational assistance exclusion; Section 132, the fringe benefit exclusion for working condition benefits (e.g., job-related eduction) among other benefits. Congress established the two tax provisions well before it enacted to her higher education tax benefits meant to assist taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents -- regardless of employment status -- pay current educational expenses incurred while obtaining postsecondary degrees and undertaking lifelong learning.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: July 23, 2008
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. Many in the scientific community maintain that in order to compete with countries that are rapidly expanding their scientific and technological capabilities, the country needs to bring to the United States those whose skills will benefit society and will enable us to compete in the new-technology based global economy. This report analyzes this issue in detail and includes discussion of related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campus-Based Student Financial Aid Programs Under the Higher Education Act

Campus-Based Student Financial Aid Programs Under the Higher Education Act

Date: July 30, 2008
Creator: Smole, David P.
Description: This report begins by providing a brief description of each of the campus-based programs, including the terms under which financial aid is awarded to students and the procedures under which federal funds are allocated to institutions for that purpose. It then provides historical information on federal funds appropriated for each of the programs, an analysis of the number and types of students served, and selected program statistics. It concludes with a discussion of amendments to the campus-based programs proposed in S. 1642 and H.R. 4137.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Higher Education Opportunity Act: Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act

The Higher Education Opportunity Act: Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act

Date: September 8, 2008
Creator: Smole, David P.; Naughton, Blake Alan; Kuenzi, Jeffrey J. & Skinner, Rebecca R.
Description: This report begins with a brief overview of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA), its organization into various titles, and the major programs and program requirements specified under each title. It then identifies and describes selected amendments made to the HEA and other laws by the Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Research and Development Funding at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Federal Research and Development Funding at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Date: September 26, 2008
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: This report discusses funding for the historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). HBCUs comprise approximately 2.3% of all institutions of higher education, and enroll approximately 11.6% of all black students attending post-secondary institutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis

Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis

Date: October 7, 2008
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: Currently, federal law prohibits states from granting unauthorized aliens certain postsecondary educational benefits on the basis of state residence, unless equal benefits are made available to all U.S. citizens. This prohibition is commonly understood to apply to the granting of "in-state" residency status for tuition purposes. In the 110th Congress, several bills that would amend this federal law have been introduced. Meanwhile, some states have passed laws aimed at making unauthorized state residents eligible for in-state tuition without violating this provision. This report provides a legal overview of cases involving immigrant access to higher education, as well as an analysis of the legality of state laws that make in-state tuition rates available to illegal immigrants.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Proposed Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Date: January 22, 2009
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R.; Smole, David P.; Lordeman, Ann & Riddle, Wayne C.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or would be administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) that were included in the act under Title IX (Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education) and Title XII (State Fiscal Stabilization Fund). It also provides estimates of state grants for programs for which these estimates are relevant and for which data needed to produce the estimates are available.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Date: January 27, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report provides a basic understanding of science and technology policy including the nature of S&T policy, how scientific and technical knowledge is useful for public policy decisionmaking, and an overview of the key stakeholders in science and technology policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)

Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)

Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R.; Smole, David P.; Lordeman, Ann & Riddle, Wayne C.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or will be administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) that were included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) under Division A, Title VIII, Department of Education, and under Title XIV, State Fiscal Stabilization Fund. It also includes a discussion of relevant provisions that were included in the House and Senate bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Medicaid and Graduate Medical Education

Medicaid and Graduate Medical Education

Date: February 17, 2009
Creator: Herz, Elicia J. & Tilson, Sibyl
Description: This report discusses Medicaid coverage of graduate medical education (GME) costs. GME costs are difficult to determine because teaching occurs in the context of patient care and research. There are direct GME (DGME) costs, which include residents' stipends, payments to supervising physicians, and direct program administration costs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)

Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)

Date: February 20, 2009
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R.; Smole, David P.; Lordeman, Ann & Riddle, Wayne C.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or will be administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) that were included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) under Division A, Title VIII, Department of Education, and under Title XIV, State Fiscal Stabilization Fund. It also includes a discussion of relevant provisions that were included in the House and Senate bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Issues Related to Funding for Religious Schools in P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Legal Issues Related to Funding for Religious Schools in P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Date: March 5, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report will provide a brief overview of the prohibition on the use of funds by institutions of higher education, including proposals considered by the House and Senate before the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5) was enacted. It will also analyze the constitutionality of the distribution of federal money to religious schools in the context of common questions raised by these provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

Date: April 13, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report discusses in detail the America COMPETES Act, which is intended to increase the nation's investment in research and development (R&D), and in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This report discusses the funding increases authorized by the act for various relevant institutions, e.g., the National Science Foundation (NSF); the act's education activities intended to enhance the skills of STEM educators; and if Congress will continue to similarly fund the America COMPETES Act in the FY2010 budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)

Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)

Date: April 14, 2009
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R.; Smole, David P.; Lordeman, Ann & Riddle, Wayne C.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or will be administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) that were included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) under Division A, Title VIII, Department of Education, and under Title XIV, State Fiscal Stabilization Fund. It also includes a discussion of relevant provisions that were included in the House and Senate bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: Science and technology policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for and encouragement of scientific and engineering research and development, the use of scientific and technical knowledge to enhance the nations' response to societal challenges, and the education of Americans in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. This report describes the science and engineering community, policymakers' interest in that community and its various endeavors, and the organizations that provide science and technology policy advice to agencies of the federal government and/or Members of Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

Date: June 15, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report discusses in detail the America COMPETES Act, which is intended to increase the nation's investment in research and development (R&D), and in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This report discusses the funding increases authorized by the act for various relevant institutions, e.g., the National Science Foundation (NSF); the act's education activities intended to enhance the skills of STEM educators; and if Congress will continue to similarly fund the America COMPETES Act in the FY2010 budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report discusses in detail the America COMPETES Act, which is intended to increase the nation's investment in research and development (R&D), and in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This report discusses the funding increases authorized by the act for various relevant institutions, e.g., the National Science Foundation (NSF); the act's education activities intended to enhance the skills of STEM educators; and if Congress will continue to similarly fund the America COMPETES Act in the FY2010 budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis

Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis

Date: January 13, 2010
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: This report provides a legal overview of cases involving immigrant access to higher education, as well as an analysis of the legality of state laws that make in-state tuition rates available to illegal aliens.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: January 25, 2010
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

Date: January 29, 2010
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Description: This report discusses in detail the America COMPETES Act, which is intended to increase the nation's investment in research and development (R&D), and in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This report discusses the funding increases authorized by the act for various relevant institutions; the act's education activities intended to enhance the skills of STEM educators; and if Congress will continue to similarly fund the Act in the FY2010 budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: March 23, 2010
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internships, Fellowships, and Other Work Experience Opportunities in the Federal Government

Internships, Fellowships, and Other Work Experience Opportunities in the Federal Government

Date: July 27, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E. & Ludwigson, Elli K.
Description: This report describes Internet resources on major internship, fellowship, and work experience programs within the federal government. It is intended as a selective guide for students of all levels: high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate. This report will be updated annually.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Improvements Act of 2010

The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Improvements Act of 2010

Date: August 2, 2010
Creator: Dortch, Cassandria
Description: This report identifies and examines selected changes that the Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 makes to the Post-9/11 GI Bill and other GI Bills, including expanded eligibility.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department