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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
The federal government's role in financing school construction and renovation continues to be an issue in the 109th Congress, although school construction has generally been considered a state and local responsibility. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the unmet need for school construction and renovation is estimated to be $127 billion. NCES indicates that three-quarters of the nation's schools report needing funds to bring their buildings into a "good overall condition." Indirect federal support for school construction is currently provided by exempting the interest on state and local governmental bonds from federal income taxes, as well as other tax code provisions. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, an estimated 400 schools need to be rebuilt in Louisiana and Mississippi. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10206/
Student Loans and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation
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Rumsfeld v. FAIR:
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The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act: A Legal Overview
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Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8352/
Education-Related Hurricane Relief: Legislative Action
This report provides an overview of the waivers that have been granted by the Department of Education in response to the Gulf Coast hurricanes; three public laws that have been enacted, specifically to provide financial relief to postsecondary students and institutions of higher education; and education-related hurricane relief provisions included in FY2006 defense appropriations. For K-12 education, the latter provides several waivers of existing requirements and appropriates $1.4 billion, primarily to restart school operations in affected areas and to provide emergency impact aid grants to schools serving displaced students. For higher education, P.L. 109-148 provides waivers of existing requirements and makes available $200 million to provide assistance under various HEA programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8350/
Higher Education Tax Credits: An Economic Analysis
This report provides analysis of the education tax credit program in the context of issues facing Congress in regard to higher education. This report begins with a review of the economic rationale for subsidizing education, then describes federal subsidies for education in general and the education tax credits in particular. An analysis of the education credits follows and the report concludes with a discussion of education tax credit policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8354/
Federal Student Aid Need Analysis System: Background, Description, and Legislative Action
A federal need analysis system underlies the annual allocation of billions of dollars (more than $73 billion in FY2005) in student financial aid supported by Title IV of the Higher Education Act (HEA) (P.L. 89-329, as amended). The system has regularly been characterized by many as too complex, creating a barrier for students seeking financial assistance, especially low-income students. This report provides an overview of the federal need analysis system, including a discussion of recent legislative changes and proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8278/
Congress and Program Evaluation: An Overview of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and Related Issues
This report discusses what RCTs are and identifies a number of issues regarding RCTs that might arise when Congress considers making program evaluation policy. For example, in the 109th Congress, Section 3 of S. 1934 (as introduced) would establish a priority for RCTs when evaluating offender reentry demonstration projects; Section 114 of S. 667 (Senate Finance Committee-reported bill) would require RCTs for demonstration projects for low-income families; and Section 5 of S. 1129 (as introduced) would call for RCTs for projects and policies of multilateral development banks. Issues regarding RCTs could also arise when actors in the policy process present specific program evaluations to Congress (e.g., in the President’s budget proposals) to influence Congress’s views and decision making. For many reasons, evaluations often merit scrutiny and care in interpretation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9145/
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks
Palestinian education reform is often seen as a key element in internal Palestinian reform and the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, as well as in broader U.S. interests in the region. Concerns over Palestinian Authority (PA) textbooks often cite examples of anti-Jewish education materials and a lack of reference to or positive acknowledgment of the state of Israel. Overall, some analysts allege that PA textbooks spread a culture of violence that prizes martyrdom. Palestinian curriculum reform is an important element in the broader U.S. policy of promoting Middle East democracy and governance reforms. Palestinian curriculum development is relevant to congressional concerns about the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, levels of U.S. assistance to the Palestinians, U.N. reforms in the Palestinian Territories, and the broader U.S. promotion of democracy in the Middle East. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10379/
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks
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Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks
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Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
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Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
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Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
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Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10524/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9545/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9878/
Adult Education and Literacy: Overview and Reauthorization Proposals of the 109th Congress
This report discusses the reauthorization of federal adult education and literacy programs being considered by the 109th Congress. The Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) authorized these programs through FY2003. The General Education Provisions Act (GEPA) provided a one-year extension of authorization through FY2004, and annual appropriations have continued AEFLA programs since. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822416/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9954/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9926/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
Issues and legislation related to foreign students continue to arise. The funding and English-language competency of foreign students have raised concerns with some universities, advocacy groups, and other observers. Additionally, some recent legislation has focused on attracting foreign students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Legislation passed in the Senate (S. 2611) would create pathways to citizenship for foreign students in the STEM fields of study. Although there are provisions in this legislation for undergraduate students, the major focus has been on students obtaining advanced degrees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10477/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822388/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The scientific community has been divided over proposals to impose stricter immigration limits on people with scientific and technical skills. Attempts to settle upon the balance between the needs for a highly skilled scientific and technical workforce, and the need to protect and ensure job opportunities, salaries, and working conditions of U.S. scientific personnel, will continue to be debated. This report addresses these issues and their implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10169/
Foreign Medical Graduates: A Brief Overview of the J-1 Visa Waiver Program
This report focuses on those international medical graduates (IMGs) who are foreign nationals, hereafter referred to as foreign medical graduates (FMGs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822602/
Internships, Fellowships, and Other Work Experience Opportunities in the Federal Government
This report describes Internet resources on internships, fellowships, and work experience programs within the federal government. It is intended as a selective guide for students of all levels: high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate. This report will be updated annually. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83853/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820671/
Campus-Based Student Financial Aid Programs Under the Higher Education Act
This report begins by providing a brief description of each of the campus-based programs, including the terms under which financial aid is awarded to students and the procedures under which federal funds are allocated to institutions for that purpose. It then provides historical information on federal funds appropriated for each of the programs, an analysis of the number and types of students served, and selected program statistics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822637/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
This report discusses the increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce that has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. Many in the scientific community maintain that in order to compete with countries that are rapidly expanding their scientific and technological capabilities, the country needs to bring to the United States those whose skills will benefit society and will enable us to compete in the new-technology based global economy. This report analyzes this issue in detail and includes discussion of related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822487/
Student Loans, Student Aid, and FY2008 Budget Reconciliation
This report reviews and briefly describes the major changes proposed in H.R. 2669 to federal student loan and other federal student aid programs that would achieve savings in mandatory spending or that would result in changes to existing federal student aid programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821560/
Student Loans, Student Aid, and FY2008 Budget Reconciliation
This report reviews and briefly describes the major proposals that would change the federal student loan programs to achieve savings in mandatory spending and the proposals that would enhance student aid benefits or result in changes to existing federal student aid programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822355/
District of Columbia Tuition Assistance Program
This report discusses the District of Columbia (DC) Tuition Assistance Program, which provides scholarships for undergraduate education to DC residents ranging from $2,500 to $10,000. Originally, the program was limited to providing scholarships for attending public higher education institutions in Maryland and Virginia, but it was expanded to include public institutions nationwide in May 2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821086/
Student Loans, Student Aid, and FY2008 Budget Reconciliation
This report reviews and briefly describes the major proposals contained in both the House-passed and Senate-passed versions of H.R. 2669 to achieve savings in mandatory spending through changes to federal student loan programs and to enhance student aid benefits or make other changes to existing federal student aid programs. It also reviews and describes the major changes enacted under P.L. 110-84 that are projected to achieve savings in mandatory spending and those that establish new or enhanced student aid benefits or that otherwise amend pre-existing federal student aid programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821530/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807401/
Unauthorized Alien Students: Issues and "DREAM Act" Legislation
Multiple bills have been introduced in recent Congresses to address the unauthorized student population. While there are other options for dealing with this population, this report deals exclusively with the DREAM Act approach of proposing relief for unauthorized students in light of the widespread congressional interest in it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795689/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822603/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820748/
Medicaid and Graduate Medical Education
This report discusses Medicaid coverage of graduate medical education (GME) costs. GME costs are difficult to determine because teaching occurs in the context of patient care and research. There are direct GME (DGME) costs, which include residents' stipends, payments to supervising physicians, and direct program administration costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821463/
Proposals to Ensure the Availability of Federal Student Loans During an Economic Downturn: A Brief Overview of H.R. 5715 and S. 2815
This report examines amendments to the federal student loan programs made under P.L. 110-227. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700914/
Foreign Medical Graduates: A Brief Overview of the J-1 Visa Waiver Program
The Educational and Cultural Exchange Visitor program has become a gateway for foreign medical graduates (FMGs) to gain admission to the United States as nonimmigrants for the purpose of graduate medical education and training. These FMGs either enter under the J-1 nonimmigrant visa or receive waivers that require them to work in a designated healthcare professional shortage area for a minimum of three years. The ability of states to request such waivers is known as the "Conrad State Program," and was added temporarily to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) in 1994. It has been extended by the last several Congresses. Legislation has been introduced in the 110th Congress to address the program's expiration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10688/
A Brief History of Veterans' Education Benefits and Their Value
This report reviews the evolution of veterans' education benefit programs and describes the types of education benefits that have been made available under these programs. It also examines how changes in the estimated value of these benefits compares with changes in average college prices, and provides a discussion of the interaction between veterans' education benefits and federal student aid benefits made available under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA), as amended. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462048/
Tax Treatment of Employer Educational Assistance for the Benefit of Employees
Educational assistance offered by employers to their employees may be exempt from federal income tax under Section 127 and Section 132 of the Internal Revenue Code. Section 127 is the employer educational assistance exclusion; Section 132, the fringe benefit exclusion for working condition benefits (e.g., job-related eduction) among other benefits. Congress established the two tax provisions well before it enacted to her higher education tax benefits meant to assist taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents -- regardless of employment status -- pay current educational expenses incurred while obtaining postsecondary degrees and undertaking lifelong learning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10765/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. Many in the scientific community maintain that in order to compete with countries that are rapidly expanding their scientific and technological capabilities, the country needs to bring to the United States those whose skills will benefit society and will enable us to compete in the new-technology based global economy. This report analyzes this issue in detail and includes discussion of related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26122/
Campus-Based Student Financial Aid Programs Under the Higher Education Act
This report begins by providing a brief description of each of the campus-based programs, including the terms under which financial aid is awarded to students and the procedures under which federal funds are allocated to institutions for that purpose. It then provides historical information on federal funds appropriated for each of the programs, an analysis of the number and types of students served, and selected program statistics. It concludes with a discussion of amendments to the campus-based programs proposed in S. 1642 and H.R. 4137. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820162/
The Higher Education Opportunity Act: Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act
This report begins with a brief overview of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA), its organization into various titles, and the major programs and program requirements specified under each title. It then identifies and describes selected amendments made to the HEA and other laws by the Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463214/
Federal Research and Development Funding at Historically Black Colleges and Universities
This report discusses funding for the historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). HBCUs comprise approximately 2.3% of all institutions of higher education, and enroll approximately 11.6% of all black students attending post-secondary institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795348/
Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis
Currently, federal law prohibits states from granting unauthorized aliens certain postsecondary educational benefits on the basis of state residence, unless equal benefits are made available to all U.S. citizens. This prohibition is commonly understood to apply to the granting of "in-state" residency status for tuition purposes. In the 110th Congress, several bills that would amend this federal law have been introduced. Meanwhile, some states have passed laws aimed at making unauthorized state residents eligible for in-state tuition without violating this provision. This report provides a legal overview of cases involving immigrant access to higher education, as well as an analysis of the legality of state laws that make in-state tuition rates available to illegal immigrants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10680/
Proposed Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or would be administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) that were included in the act under Title IX (Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education) and Title XII (State Fiscal Stabilization Fund). It also provides estimates of state grants for programs for which these estimates are relevant and for which data needed to produce the estimates are available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462251/
Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer
This report provides a basic understanding of science and technology policy including the nature of S&T policy, how scientific and technical knowledge is useful for public policy decisionmaking, and an overview of the key stakeholders in science and technology policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743578/
Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)
This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or will be administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) that were included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) under Division A, Title VIII, Department of Education, and under Title XIV, State Fiscal Stabilization Fund. It also includes a discussion of relevant provisions that were included in the House and Senate bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700689/