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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2006
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Federal Student Aid Need Analysis System: Background, Description, and Legislative Action

Federal Student Aid Need Analysis System: Background, Description, and Legislative Action

Date: February 3, 2006
Creator: Mercer, Charmaine
Description: A federal need analysis system underlies the annual allocation of billions of dollars (more than $73 billion in FY2005) in student financial aid supported by Title IV of the Higher Education Act (HEA) (P.L. 89-329, as amended). The system has regularly been characterized by many as too complex, creating a barrier for students seeking financial assistance, especially low-income students. This report provides an overview of the federal need analysis system, including a discussion of recent legislative changes and proposals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D.
Description: Palestinian education reform is often seen as a key element in internal Palestinian reform and the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, as well as in broader U.S. interests in the region. Concerns over Palestinian Authority (PA) textbooks often cite examples of anti-Jewish education materials and a lack of reference to or positive acknowledgment of the state of Israel. Overall, some analysts allege that PA textbooks spread a culture of violence that prizes martyrdom. Palestinian curriculum reform is an important element in the broader U.S. policy of promoting Middle East democracy and governance reforms. Palestinian curriculum development is relevant to congressional concerns about the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, levels of U.S. assistance to the Palestinians, U.N. reforms in the Palestinian Territories, and the broader U.S. promotion of democracy in the Middle East.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Date: October 19, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Higher Education Tax Credits: An Economic Analysis

Higher Education Tax Credits: An Economic Analysis

Date: January 17, 2006
Creator: Jackson, Pamela J
Description: This report provides analysis of the education tax credit program in the context of issues facing Congress in regard to higher education. This report begins with a review of the economic rationale for subsidizing education, then describes federal subsidies for education in general and the education tax credits in particular. An analysis of the education credits follows and the report concludes with a discussion of education tax credit policy options.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Date: October 11, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Date: October 19, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: Issues and legislation related to foreign students continue to arise. The funding and English-language competency of foreign students have raised concerns with some universities, advocacy groups, and other observers. Additionally, some recent legislation has focused on attracting foreign students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Legislation passed in the Senate (S. 2611) would create pathways to citizenship for foreign students in the STEM fields of study. Although there are provisions in this legislation for undergraduate students, the major focus has been on students obtaining advanced degrees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Date: December 8, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education-Related Hurricane Relief: Legislative Action

Education-Related Hurricane Relief: Legislative Action

Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R; Apling, Richard N; Irwin, Paul M; Smole, David P; Mercer, Charmaine & Kuenzi, Jeffrey J
Description: This report provides an overview of the waivers that have been granted by the Department of Education in response to the Gulf Coast hurricanes; three public laws that have been enacted, specifically to provide financial relief to postsecondary students and institutions of higher education; and education-related hurricane relief provisions included in FY2006 defense appropriations. For K-12 education, the latter provides several waivers of existing requirements and appropriates $1.4 billion, primarily to restart school operations in affected areas and to provide emergency impact aid grants to schools serving displaced students. For higher education, P.L. 109-148 provides waivers of existing requirements and makes available $200 million to provide assistance under various HEA programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: September 14, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: September 14, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: September 14, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congress and Program Evaluation: An Overview of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and Related Issues

Congress and Program Evaluation: An Overview of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and Related Issues

Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Brass, Clinton T; Nuñez-Neto, Blas & Williams, Erin D
Description: This report discusses what RCTs are and identifies a number of issues regarding RCTs that might arise when Congress considers making program evaluation policy. For example, in the 109th Congress, Section 3 of S. 1934 (as introduced) would establish a priority for RCTs when evaluating offender reentry demonstration projects; Section 114 of S. 667 (Senate Finance Committee-reported bill) would require RCTs for demonstration projects for low-income families; and Section 5 of S. 1129 (as introduced) would call for RCTs for projects and policies of multilateral development banks. Issues regarding RCTs could also arise when actors in the policy process present specific program evaluations to Congress (e.g., in the President’s budget proposals) to influence Congress’s views and decision making. For many reasons, evaluations often merit scrutiny and care in interpretation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: Kuenzi, Jeffrey J; Matthews, Christine M & Mangan, Bonnie F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: Kuenzi, Jeffrey J; Matthews, Christine M & Mangan, Bonnie F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

Date: May 22, 2006
Creator: Kuenzi, Jeffrey J; Matthews, Christine M & Mangan, Bonnie F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department