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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Overview of Health Care Changes in the FY2015 House Budget

Overview of Health Care Changes in the FY2015 House Budget

Date: April 16, 2014
Creator: Davis, Patricia A.; Mitchell, Alison & Fernandez, Bernadette
Description: This report summarizes the proposed changes to Medicare, Medicaid, and private health insurance as described in H.Con.Res. 96 and accompanying documents, including the committee report and Chairman Ryan's Path to Prosperity report.
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Individual Mandate Under ACA

Individual Mandate Under ACA

Date: May 5, 2014
Creator: Mach, Annie L.
Description: This report describes the individual mandate as established under the Affordable Care Act (ACA, P.L. 111-148, as amended). The report also discusses the ACA reporting requirements designed, in part, to assist individuals in providing evidence of having met the mandate.
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Summary Cost Data for Health Plans Available in Maine's Exchange, 2014: Fact Sheet

Summary Cost Data for Health Plans Available in Maine's Exchange, 2014: Fact Sheet

Date: May 1, 2014
Creator: Elan, Nicholas; Fernandez, Bernadette & Mach, Annie L.
Description: This report discusses the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, P.L. 111-148, as amended) that contains a number of provisions that may affect the individual health insurance market.
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Private Health Insurance Market Reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Private Health Insurance Market Reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Date: May 6, 2014
Creator: Mach, Annie L. & Fernandez, Bernadette
Description: This report provides background information about the private health insurance market, including market segments and regulation. It then describes each Affordable Care Act (ACA) market reform.
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Health Care for Rural Veterans: The Example of Federally Qualified Health Centers

Health Care for Rural Veterans: The Example of Federally Qualified Health Centers

Date: January 13, 2014
Creator: Heisler, Elayne J.; Panangala, Sidath Viranga & Bagalman, Erin
Description: This report discusses considerations that may arise during possible attempts to increase collaboration between the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and describes policy levers Congress might use to encourage VA-FQHC collaboration. These approaches might also be employed to encourage collaboration between the VA and other types of facilities that may serve rural veterans.
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Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

Date: January 22, 2013
Creator: Jansen, Don J. & Blakeley, Katherine
Description: This report answers several frequently asked questions about military health care, including: how the system is structured, a TRICARE summary, TRICARE eligibility and plan options, cost of military health care to beneficiaries, relationship of TRICARE to MEDICARE, how the Affordable Care Act affects TRICARE, long-term trends of defense health care costs, and a summary of the fund which funds TRICARE.
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The Independent Payment Advisory Board

The Independent Payment Advisory Board

Date: April 17, 2013
Creator: Hahn, Jim & Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report, which provides an overview of the Payment Advisory Board, begins with a discussion of the rationale behind the creation of an independent Medicare board and briefly reviews prior proposals for similar boards and commissions. The report then describes the structure of the Board, the calculations and determinations required to be made by the Office of the Chief Actuary (the Chief Actuary) in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) that trigger a Board proposal, and the content of and constraints on Board proposals--including the Medicare productivity exemptions under Section 3401 of the The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA).
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H.R. 2: The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009

H.R. 2: The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009

Date: January 14, 2009
Creator: Baumrucker, Evelyne P.; Herz, Elicia J.; Peterson, Chris L.; Tilson, Sibyl & Gravelle, Jane G.
Description: This report summarizes changes to current law across the major provisions of H.R. 2 that would occur if The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA) were enacted.
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TRICARE and VA Health Care: Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

TRICARE and VA Health Care: Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Date: April 22, 2013
Creator: Panangala, Sidath Viranga & Jansen, Don J.
Description: This report addresses key questions concerning how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) affects the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system.
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Public Health Service Agencies: Overview and Funding

Public Health Service Agencies: Overview and Funding

Date: November 12, 2013
Creator: Corby-Edwards, Amalia K. & Redhead, C. S.
Description: Within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), eight agencies are designated components of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS): (1) the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), (2) the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), (3) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (4) the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), (5) the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), (6) the Indian Health Service (IHS), (7) the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and (8) the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). This report gives a brief overview of each agency and summarizes its funding for FY2010 through FY2013, as well as its FY2014 budget request.
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Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

Date: January 7, 2013
Creator: Jansen, Don J. & Blakeley, Katherine
Description: This report answers several frequently asked questions about military health care, including: how the system is structured, a TRICARE summary, TRICARE eligibility and plan options, cost of military health care to beneficiaries, relationship of TRICARE to MEDICARE, how the Affordable Care Act affects TRICARE, long-term trends of defense health care costs, and a summary of the fund which funds TRICARE - the Medicare Eligible Retiree Health Care fund.
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Long-Term Services and Supports: Overview and Financing

Long-Term Services and Supports: Overview and Financing

Date: April 4, 2013
Creator: Colello, Kirsten J.; Mulvey, Janemarie & Talaga, Scott R.
Description: This report provides an overview of Long-term services and supports (LTSS), including who needs LTSS, how need for LTSS is determined, and how much LTSS costs. The report also provides information on who the primary LTSS payers are, how much they spend, and what types of services are purchased.
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Does Price Transparency Improve Market Efficiency? Implications of Empirical Evidence in Other Markets for the Health Sector

Does Price Transparency Improve Market Efficiency? Implications of Empirical Evidence in Other Markets for the Health Sector

Date: April 29, 2008
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew & Gravelle, Jane G.
Description: This report reviews the empirical studies of the effect of changes in price transparency on prices and quality of goods in a variety of industries; addresses the extent to which this evidence might be applicable to the health care market and certain special characteristics of the health care market which may reduce the importance of prices as signals; examines how prices are actually set by hospitals and the evidence that exists on price dispersion both across hospitals and across patient categories; discusses some initiatives undertaken by governments, insurers, and interest groups to improve information about prices and to regulate price discrimination; and finally, suggests that while it is difficult to determine the consequences of greater consumer price transparency, it is reasonable to believe that greater transparency would improve outcomes.
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Private Health Insurance Market Reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Private Health Insurance Market Reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Date: March 13, 2014
Creator: Mach, Annie L. & Fernandez, Bernadette
Description: This report provides background information about the private health insurance market, including market segments and regulation. It then describes each Affordable Care Act (ACA) market reform.
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Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

Date: January 13, 2009
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: This report provides an overview of concerns about the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products, and implications for U.S.-China trade relations.
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Beverage Industry Pledges to Reduce Americans' Drink Calories

Beverage Industry Pledges to Reduce Americans' Drink Calories

Date: October 6, 2014
Creator: Dabrowska, Agata
Description: This report briefly covers recent initiatives by leading beverage companies to curb the obesity epidemic.
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Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions

Date: March 7, 2014
Creator: Napili, Angela
Description: The report provides basic consumer sources, including broad overviews of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) law, and resources related to specific provisions. It also has links to contacts for specific questions (including websites, hotlines, and online chat assistance).
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Individual Mandate Under ACA

Individual Mandate Under ACA

Date: unknown
Creator: Mach, Annie L.
Description: Report describing the individual mandate requirements of the Afordable Care Act, as well as penalties for not meeting these requirements and exemptions granted for hardships.
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Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP): Available Health Insurance Options

Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP): Available Health Insurance Options

Date: February 13, 2013
Creator: Mach, Annie L.
Description: This report discusses the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), a program administered by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), which is statutorily given the authority to contract with qualified carriers offering plans and to prescribe regulations necessary to carry out the statute, among other duties.
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Medical Loss Ratio Requirements Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Issues for Congress

Medical Loss Ratio Requirements Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Issues for Congress

Date: August 26, 2014
Creator: Kirchhoff, Suzanne M.
Description: This report provides a detailed description of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, P.L. 111-148) requirements for Medical Loss Ratio (MLR) reporting and rebates as specified in regulations, including components of the MLR formula, state flexibility and waivers, and the nature of rebates to policyholders. The report also addresses issues that have been raised about the MLR provisions since the ACA was enacted, namely the treatment of insurance commissions paid to brokers and agents.
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Medicare: Part B Premiums

Medicare: Part B Premiums

Date: December 29, 2008
Creator: Hahn, Jim
Description: This report examines the history of the Medicare Part B Premium. The report considers issues including the changing factors that go into determining the premium. The report also discusses the comparative cost adjustment program, the Part B deductible, and the Part A premium.
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Summary Cost Data for Federally-Facilitated Exchanges, 2014

Summary Cost Data for Federally-Facilitated Exchanges, 2014

Date: August 8, 2014
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette & Mach, Annie L.
Description: This report provides fact sheets for Federally-Facilitated exchanges offering individual plans.
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TRICARE and VA Health Care: Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

TRICARE and VA Health Care: Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Date: February 11, 2014
Creator: Panangala, Sidath Viranga & Jansen, Don J.
Description: This report addresses key questions concerning how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) affects TRICARE and VA health care.
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Medicare: Insolvency Projections

Medicare: Insolvency Projections

Date: September 19, 2014
Creator: Davis, Patricia A.
Description: This report focuses on the two separate trust funds that fund Medicare, the Hospital Insurance (HI) trust fund and Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) trust fund. Almost from its inception, the HI trust fund has faced a projected shortfall and eventual insolvency. Because of the way it is financed, the SMI trust fund cannot become insolvent; however, the Medicare Trustees continue to express concerns about the rapid growth in SMI costs.
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