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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Date: April 6, 2012
Creator: Staman, Jennifer; Brougher, Cynthia; Liu, Edward C.; Lunder, Erika K. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Description: This report discusses the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), P.L. 111-148, as amended, Congress enacted a “minimum coverage provision,” which compels certain individuals to have a minimum level of health insurance. This report provides an analysis of the constitutionality of this provision requiring individuals to obtain health insurance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Medicare Physician Payment Updates and the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) System

Medicare Physician Payment Updates and the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) System

Date: February 15, 2013
Creator: Hahn, Jim & Janemarie Mulvey
Description: This report provides a background on the Medicare fee schedule, the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) system, and the annual updates and discusses recent proposals to address this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Medicare Physician Payment Updates and the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) System

Medicare Physician Payment Updates and the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) System

Date: December 27, 2011
Creator: Hahn, Jim & Mulvey, Janemarie
Description: This report provides a background on the Medicare fee schedule, the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) system and the annual updates, and discusses recent proposal to address this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3590, as Passed by the Senate

Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3590, as Passed by the Senate

Date: March 1, 2010
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen & Williams, Erin D.
Description: This report summarizes the workforce, prevention, quality, and related provisions in H.R. 3590, as passed by the Senate. It begins with some background on health care delivery reform, followed by an overview of the report’s content and organization
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Long-Term Care (LTC): Financing Overview and Issues for Congress

Long-Term Care (LTC): Financing Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Stone, Julie
Description: This report provides an overview of long-term care (LTC) and an explanation of the nation’s complex financing system of public and private payers. It also describes some of the major challenges facing Congress as it contemplates LTC reform and whether and how to include LTC in health reform legislation.
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Medicare Primer

Medicare Primer

Date: April 24, 2012
Creator: Davis, Patricia A.; Binder, Cliff; Hahn, Jim; Morgan, Paulette C.; Mulvey, Janemarie; Talaga, Scott R. et al.
Description: This report provides an overview of Medicare, the nation's federal insurance program, which pays for covered health care services of qualified beneficiaries.
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Medicare Home Health Benefit Primer: Benefit Basics and Issues

Medicare Home Health Benefit Primer: Benefit Basics and Issues

Date: March 14, 2013
Creator: Talaga, Scott R.
Description: This report describes home health eligibility criteria, home health services, characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries who use home health services, and home health providers. Further, this report describes in detail the Medicare home health prospective payment system (HH PPS), provides an overview of Medicare home health payments, and discusses issues for Congress related to the Medicare home health benefit.
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Medicaid and CHIP Maintenance of Effort (MOE): Requirements and Responses

Medicaid and CHIP Maintenance of Effort (MOE): Requirements and Responses

Date: May 25, 2011
Creator: Baumrucker, Evelyne P.
Description: This report summarizes the MOE requirements enacted under American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as modified by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 and what these requirements have meant for states in terms of their actions to restrict Medicaid and/or CHIP eligibility. It also summarizes recent legislative activity to repeal the MOE requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage

Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage

Date: June 25, 2010
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette
Description: This report provides background information on private health insurance coverage, state and federal regulation of private coverage, and self-insured health plans. It includes data on the prevalence of self-insurance and discusses the employer decision to self-insure. Lastly, it describes selected private health insurance provisions under federal health reform, and application of such provisions on self-insured plans.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage

Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage

Date: May 12, 2010
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette
Description: This report provides background information on private health insurance coverage, state and federal regulation of private coverage, and self-insured health plans. It includes data on the prevalence of self-insurance and discusses the employer decision to self-insure. Lastly, it describes selected private health insurance provisions under federal health reform, and application of such provisions on self-insured plans.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Transitional Medical Assistance (TMA) Under Medicaid

Transitional Medical Assistance (TMA) Under Medicaid

Date: July 24, 2008
Creator: Grady, April
Description: This report provides an overview of transitional medical assistance (TMA). While Section 1925 of the Social Security Act outlines the provisions requiring states to provide TMA for up to 12 months, states have considerable flexibility in designing and implementing their TMA programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Proposed Rule on Medicaid Managed Care: Frequently Asked Questions

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Proposed Rule on Medicaid Managed Care: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: July 15, 2015
Creator: Blom, Kirstin B.
Description: This report responds to a series of frequently asked questions (FAQs) identified to address some of the major updates included in the proposed rule. The FAQs summarize provisions such as the introduction of a minimum medical loss ratio (MLR), guidance on enrolling the long-term services and supports (LTSS) population in managed care, and network adequacy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Health Savings Accounts: Overview of Rules for 2012

Health Savings Accounts: Overview of Rules for 2012

Date: December 20, 2011
Creator: Mulvey, Janemarie
Description: This report provides a summary of the principal rules governing Health Savings Accounts (HSAs), covering such matters as eligibility, qualifying health insurance, contributions, and withdrawals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mental Health Parity and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Mental Health Parity and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Date: December 28, 2011
Creator: Sarata, Amanda K.
Description: This report provides a brief background on mental health parity and the policy discussion around parity in health insurance coverage; an overview of federal mental health parity law prior to the enactment of the ACA; and an analysis of the impact of the ACA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mental Health Parity and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Mental Health Parity and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Date: January 7, 2011
Creator: Sarata, Amanda K.
Description: This report provides a brief background on mental health parity and the policy discussion around parity in health insurance coverage; an overview of federal mental health parity law prior to the enactment of the ACA; and an analysis of the impact of the ACA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Staman, Jennifer; Brougher, Cynthia; Liu, Edward C.; Lunder, Erika K. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Description: This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to enact the minimum essential coverage requirement contained in Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), as well as how a court might analyze this provision if challenged based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. This report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion, and finally, discusses some of the legal challenges to this federal requirement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)

Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)

Date: January 5, 2011
Creator: Mulvey, Janemarie & Colello, Kirsten J.
Description: This report first discusses the cost and financing for long-term care (LTC) services as well as the current market for private LTC insurance. It then details those CLASS program requirements for enrollment, premiums, eligibility, benefits, administration, and oversight. The report also discusses federal budget implications, as estimated by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Finally, the report provides a timeline of the CLASS program provisions enacted under PPACA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Date: December 16, 2010
Creator: Staman, Jennifer; Brougher, Cynthia; Liu, Edward C.; Lunder, Erika K. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Description: This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to enact the minimum essential coverage requirement contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), as well as how a court might analyze this provision if challenged based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. This report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion, and finally, discusses some of the legal challenges to this federal requirement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Date: May 7, 2010
Creator: Staman, Jennifer; Brougher, Cynthia; Liu, Edward C.; Lunder, Erika K. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Description: This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to pass a law of this nature, as well as how a court could analyze this provision in light of a constitutional challenge based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. Finally, this report discusses whether the exceptions to the individual responsibility requirement to purchase health insurance satisfy First Amendment freedom of religion protections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Date: July 24, 2009
Creator: Staman, Jennifer & Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to pass a proposal of this nature, as well as how a court could analyze this type of proposal if there were to be a constitutional challenge based on various provisions of the Fifth Amendment. Finally, this report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Medicaid Expenditures, FY2003 and FY2004

Medicaid Expenditures, FY2003 and FY2004

Date: January 17, 2006
Creator: Tritz, Karen
Description: This report discusses the federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP), which is the percentage of Medicaid benefit costs paid for by the federal government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors: What Are the Human Health Risks?

Environmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors: What Are the Human Health Risks?

Date: February 4, 2002
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo & Buck, Eugene H.
Description: This report discusses the human health risks, specifically from endocrine disruptors that are chemical compounds in drugs, food, consumer products, or the ambient environment that can interfere with internal biological processes of animals that normally are regulated by their hormones.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3962

Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3962

Date: November 5, 2009
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Description: This report discusses health care reform, which was at the top of the domestic policy agenda for the 111th Congress, driven by concerns about the growing ranks of the uninsured and the unsustainable growth in spending on health care and health insurance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Medicare Primer

Medicare Primer

Date: September 10, 2014
Creator: Davis, Patricia A.; Talaga, Scott R.; Binder, Cliff; Hahn, Jim; Morgan, Paulette C.; Mulvey, Janemarie et al.
Description: This report provides an overview of Medicare, the nation's federal insurance program, which pays for covered health care services of qualified beneficiaries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department