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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Health Care: Constitutional Rights and Legislative Powers

Health Care: Constitutional Rights and Legislative Powers

Date: July 9, 2012
Creator: Swendiman, Kathleen S.
Description: This report analyzes constitutional and legal issues pertaining to a right to health care, as well as the power of Congress to enact and fund health care programs. The report also discusses legal issues that have been raised regarding the power of Congress to mandate that individuals purchase health insurance, and the ability of states to "nullify" or "opt out" of such a requirement, following the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148).
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Health Care Flexible Spending Accounts

Health Care Flexible Spending Accounts

Date: June 13, 2012
Creator: Mulvey, Janemarie
Description: Health care Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs) are benefit plans established by employers to reimburse employees for health care expenses such as deductibles and copayments. The contributions to and withdrawals from FSAs are tax-exempt. On June 7, 2012, the House passed H.R. 436, the Health Care Cost Reduction Act of 2012, which would allow up to $500 of unused balances in health FSAs to be distributed back to the account holder after the plan year ends and to allow over-the-counter prescriptions to be a qualified medical expense. The bill has been sent to the Senate for its consideration. Similar bills in the Senate have been referred to the Senate Finance Committee (S. 1368 and S. 1404). This report discusses these bills in greater detail.
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Health Care Flexible Spending Accounts

Health Care Flexible Spending Accounts

Date: June 5, 2012
Creator: Mulvey, Janemarie
Description: Health care Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs) are benefit plans established by employers to reimburse employees for health care expenses such as deductibles and copayments. FSAs are usually funded by employees through salary reduction agreements, although employers are permitted to contribute as well. The contributions to and withdrawals from FSAs are tax-exempt. This report discusses two recent bills, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Health Care Cost Reduction Act of 2012, both of which limits contributions to FSAs and redefines over the counter (OTC) drugs,
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Health Care for Rural Veterans: The Example of Federally Qualified Health Centers

Health Care for Rural Veterans: The Example of Federally Qualified Health Centers

Date: January 13, 2014
Creator: Heisler, Elayne J.; Panangala, Sidath Viranga & Bagalman, Erin
Description: This report discusses considerations that may arise during possible attempts to increase collaboration between the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and describes policy levers Congress might use to encourage VA-FQHC collaboration. These approaches might also be employed to encourage collaboration between the VA and other types of facilities that may serve rural veterans.
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Health Insurance Exchanges Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Health Insurance Exchanges Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Date: October 10, 2012
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette & Mach, Annie L.
Description: This report outlines the required minimum functions of state health insurance exchanges and explains how exchanges are expected to be established and administered under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The coverage offered through exchanges is discussed, and the report concludes with a discussion of how exchanges will interact with selected other ACA provisions.
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Health Insurance Premium Credits in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Health Insurance Premium Credits in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Date: March 12, 2014
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette
Description: This report describes the eligibility criteria applicable to the premium tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies, and the calculation method for the credit and subsidy amounts. It also highlights selected issues addressed in the final regulation on premium credits.
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The Independent Payment Advisory Board

The Independent Payment Advisory Board

Date: March 12, 2012
Creator: Hahn, Jim & Davis, Christopher M.
Description: In response, in part, to overall growth in Medicare program expenditures and growth in expenditures per Medicare beneficiary, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act created the Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB, or the Board) and charged the Board with developing proposals to "reduce the per capita rate of growth in Medicare spending." This report discusses the responsibilities and duties.
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The Independent Payment Advisory Board

The Independent Payment Advisory Board

Date: April 17, 2013
Creator: Hahn, Jim & Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report, which provides an overview of the Payment Advisory Board, begins with a discussion of the rationale behind the creation of an independent Medicare board and briefly reviews prior proposals for similar boards and commissions. The report then describes the structure of the Board, the calculations and determinations required to be made by the Office of the Chief Actuary (the Chief Actuary) in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) that trigger a Board proposal, and the content of and constraints on Board proposals--including the Medicare productivity exemptions under Section 3401 of the The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA).
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Individual Mandate and Related Information Requirements under ACA

Individual Mandate and Related Information Requirements under ACA

Date: July 22, 2013
Creator: Mach, Annie L.; Scales, Manon & Mulvey, Janemarie
Description: Report that describes the individual mandate under Section 1501 and Section 10106 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, P.L. 111-148, as amended).
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Individual Mandate Under ACA

Individual Mandate Under ACA

Date: March 6, 2014
Creator: Mach, Annie L.
Description: This report describes the individual mandate as established under the Affordable Care Act (ACA, P.L. 111-148, as amended). The report also discusses the ACA reporting requirements designed, in part, to assist individuals in providing evidence of having met the mandate.
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