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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Discretionary Spending Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Discretionary Spending Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Date: January 13, 2016
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen; Colello, Kirsten J.; Heisler, Elayne J.; Lister, Sarah A. & Sarata, Amanda K.
Description: This report examines the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) effects on discretionary spending. It first discusses all the ACA authorizations (and reauthorizations) of appropriations for grant and other programs; this information, along with actual funding amounts, is summarized in a series of tables. The report then reviews the ACA administrative costs borne by CMS and the IRS.
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Health-Related Tax Expenditures: Overview and Analysis

Health-Related Tax Expenditures: Overview and Analysis

Date: January 8, 2016
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Description: This report analyzes health-related tax expenditures together at the budget function level, rather than focusing on the size of any single provision. To provide some insights into common questions about health-related expenditures, this report analyzes historical data on health-related tax expenditure estimates published by the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT).
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Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2016)

Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2016)

Date: January 5, 2016
Creator: Redhead, C. S. & Cornell, Ada S.
Description: This report summarizes the language related to the Affordable Care (ACA) that was added to annual appropriations legislation by congressional appropriators since the ACA was signed into law. The information is presented in a table. While a detailed examination of the ACA itself is beyond the scope of this report, a brief overview of the ACA's core provisions and its impact on federal spending is provided as context for the material in the table. Congress remains deeply divided over implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which President Obama signed into law in March 2010.
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The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program: Overview and Impact of the Affordable Care Act

The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program: Overview and Impact of the Affordable Care Act

Date: December 21, 2015
Creator: Johnson, Judith A. & Heisler, Elayne J.
Description: This report discusses the impact of the Affordable Care Act on the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, which makes federal funds available to metropolitan areas and states to that provide a number of health care services for HIV/AIDS patients.
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Puerto Rico and Health Care Finance: Frequently Asked Questions

Puerto Rico and Health Care Finance: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: November 18, 2015
Creator: Mach, Annie L.
Description: This report provides answers to frequently asked questions (FAQs) about Puerto Rico's health care system, including how federal health care programs (Medicare, Medicaid, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program [CHIP]) and private health insurance requirements apply to Puerto Rico.
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The Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB): Frequently Asked Questions

The Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB): Frequently Asked Questions

Date: October 30, 2015
Creator: Hahn, Jim; Davis, Christopher M. & Liu, Edward C.
Description: This report responds to frequently asked questions about the Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB), including the board's background, current status, controversial issues including legal challenges, and recent legislative efforts to repeal the IPAB.
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Potential Policy Implications of the House Reconciliation Bill (H.R. 3762)

Potential Policy Implications of the House Reconciliation Bill (H.R. 3762)

Date: October 21, 2015
Creator: Mach, Annie L.
Description: This report provides background on the reconciliation process and summarizes the provisions in the Restoring Americans' Healthcare Freedom Reconciliation Act of 2015 (H.R. 3762), including their projected budgetary impact. It then briefly examines some of the bill's policy implications.
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Potential Impact of No Social Security COLA on Medicare Part B Premiums in 2016

Potential Impact of No Social Security COLA on Medicare Part B Premiums in 2016

Date: October 20, 2015
Creator: Davis, Patricia A.
Description: This report provides an overview of Medicare Part B premiums, the relationship between the Social Security cost-of-living increase (COLA) and Part B premiums, and the potential impact of a projected 0% Social Security COLA in 2016 on Medicare premiums, based on recent projections by the Medicare Trustees.
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Public Health Service Agencies: Overview and Funding (FY2010-FY2016)

Public Health Service Agencies: Overview and Funding (FY2010-FY2016)

Date: October 13, 2015
Creator: Redhead, C. S. & Dabrowska, Agata
Description: This report gives a brief overview of the eight agencies within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) which are designated components of the U.S. Public Health Services (PHS), and summarizes its funding for FY2010 through FY2016.
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Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2016)

Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2016)

Date: October 13, 2015
Creator: Redhead, C. S. & Cornell, Ada S.
Description: This report summarizes the Patient Protection and Affordable Care act (ACA)-related language added to annual appropriations legislation by congressional appropriators since the ACA was signed into law.
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The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Employer Shared Responsibility Determination and the Potential ACA Employer Penalty

The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Employer Shared Responsibility Determination and the Potential ACA Employer Penalty

Date: September 1, 2015
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: This report describes the potential employer penalties related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended) as well as regulations to implement the ACA employer provisions. The regulations address insurance coverage requirements, methodologies for determining whether a worker is considered full time, provisions relating to seasonal workers and corporate franchises, and other reporting requirements.
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The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's Essential Health Benefits (EHB)

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's Essential Health Benefits (EHB)

Date: August 27, 2015
Creator: Uberoi, Namrata K.
Description: This report provides an overview of the first component of the essential health benefits (EHB) package--a core package of health care services required by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended) for non-group and small-group private health insurance markets. The report examines how the EHB are defined, regulations related to the EHB, state variation in the EHB, applicability of the EHB to health plans, and how the EHB interact with other ACA provisions.
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Health Insurance: Small is the New Large

Health Insurance: Small is the New Large

Date: August 26, 2015
Creator: Mach, Annie L.
Description: This report discusses aspects of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that expand the definition of small employer to include employers with 100 or fewer employees. States must implement the expanded definition for plan years beginning in 2016, but have the option of implementing the expanded definition prior to the deadline.
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Medicare Financial Status: In Brief

Medicare Financial Status: In Brief

Date: August 10, 2015
Creator: Davis, Patricia A.
Description: This report provides an overview on Medicare, discussing its various components and sources of funding. The report also examines projections for spending within the program.
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Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Proposed Rule on Medicaid Managed Care: Frequently Asked Questions

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Proposed Rule on Medicaid Managed Care: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: July 15, 2015
Creator: Blom, Kirstin B.
Description: This report responds to a series of frequently asked questions (FAQs) identified to address some of the major updates included in the proposed rule. The FAQs summarize provisions such as the introduction of a minimum medical loss ratio (MLR), guidance on enrolling the long-term services and supports (LTSS) population in managed care, and network adequacy.
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Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2016)

Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2016)

Date: July 10, 2015
Creator: Redhead, C. S. & Cornell, Ada S.
Description: Congress remains deeply divided over implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the health reform law enacted in March 2010. Since the ACA's enactment, lawmakers opposed to specific provisions in the ACA or the entire law have repeatedly debated its implementation and considered bills to repeal, defund, delay, or otherwise amend the law. This report summarizes the ACA-related language added to annual appropriations legislation by congressional appropriators since the ACA was signed into law.
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H.R. 6: The 21st Century Cures Act

H.R. 6: The 21st Century Cures Act

Date: July 8, 2015
Creator: Johnson, Judith A.; Thaul, Susan & Bagalman, Erin
Description: Report about H.R. 6, the 21st Century Cures Act, which would reauthorize the National Institutes of Health (NIH) through FY2018 and provide other funding to the agency through FY2020.
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Timeline Related to Health Insurance and Exchange Rules: Backdrop to King v. Burwell

Timeline Related to Health Insurance and Exchange Rules: Backdrop to King v. Burwell

Date: June 19, 2015
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette; Mach, Annie L. & Uberoi, Namrata K.
Description: This report provides a timeline that identifies selected 2015 dates related to exchange establishment and operation, legislative calendars, and regulation of the individual health insurance market, among other issues.
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Maps of 2015 Individual Exchange Enrollment by Zip Code

Maps of 2015 Individual Exchange Enrollment by Zip Code

Date: May 21, 2015
Creator: Uberoi, Namrata K. & Uzel, James C.
Description: This report presents a tool to examine exchange enrollment information by zip code with additional geographic boundaries.
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An Introduction to Health Insurance: What Should a Consumer Know?

An Introduction to Health Insurance: What Should a Consumer Know?

Date: April 30, 2015
Creator: Rapaport, Carol
Description: This report provides an overview of private-sector (as opposed to government-provided) health insurance. It serves as an introduction to health insurance from the point of view of many consumers under the age of 65. No background in health insurance is assumed, and all terms are defined in the body of the report.
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Health Coverage Tax Credit

Health Coverage Tax Credit

Date: April 2, 2015
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette
Description: The report describes the expired eligibility criteria, as well as the types of health insurance to which the tax credit may have been applied. It discusses past federal and state roles in administering the HCTC program, and it summarizes analyses on the credit's effectiveness in reaching targeted populations and related equity and efficiency issues. In addition, the report includes a short discussion of relevant current law and summarizes statutory history of the HCTC program.
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Health Care-Related Expiring Provisions, First Session of the 114th Congress

Health Care-Related Expiring Provisions, First Session of the 114th Congress

Date: March 25, 2015
Creator: Hahn, Jim
Description: This report provides a list of selected health-related programs and activities under specified titles of the Social Security Act (SSA).
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Health Insurance Premium Credits in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2015

Health Insurance Premium Credits in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2015

Date: March 18, 2015
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette
Description: This report describes the eligibility criteria applicable to the premium tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies, and the calculation method for the credit and subsidy amounts. It also highlights selected issues addressed in the final regulation and guidance on premium credits and indicates the status of implementation, where relevant data is available.
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Appropriations and Fund Transfers in the Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Appropriations and Fund Transfers in the Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Date: March 6, 2015
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Description: This report summarizes all the mandatory appropriations and Medicare trust fund transfers in the ACA and provides details on the status of obligation of these funds. The information is presented in two tables. The report also includes a brief discussion of the impact that sequestration is having on ACA mandatory spending. This report is periodically revised and updated to reflect important legislative and other developments.
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