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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003

Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer; Chaikind, Hinda; Tilson, Sibyl; Boulanger, Jennifer & Morgan, Paulette
Description: This report examines the the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, which creates a prescription drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries and establishes a new Medicare Advantage program to replace the current Medicare+Choice program.
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Medicare: Enrollment in Medicare Drug Plans

Medicare: Enrollment in Medicare Drug Plans

Date: October 20, 2006
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer
Description: This report discusses the enrollment process for private prescription drug plans (PDPs) or Medicare Advantage prescription drug (MA-PD) plans. At a minimum, these plans offer "standard coverage" or alternative coverage with actuarially equivalent benefits. Beneficiaries are required to enroll in one of these private plans in order to obtain coverage.
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Health Care Spending: Context and Policy

Health Care Spending: Context and Policy

Date: September 6, 2005
Creator: Jenson, Jennifer
Description: This report seeks to put health spending in context. Health care costs and spending are persistent concerns for the Congress. On one hand, policymakers worry about access to care and the burden of health costs on household and employer budgets. On the other hand, rising costs put growing pressure on the federal budget from Medicare, Medicaid, and tax expenditures for private health insurance.
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Medicare Prescription Drug Proposals: Estimates of Aged Beneficiaries Who Fall Below Income Criteria, by State

Medicare Prescription Drug Proposals: Estimates of Aged Beneficiaries Who Fall Below Income Criteria, by State

Date: February 11, 2003
Creator: Peterson, Chris L. & Morgan, Paulette C.
Description: This report discusses bills related to Medicare benefits, which include additional assistance for low-income beneficiaries. The assistance would have been in the form of reduced, subsidized or eliminated premiums, deductibles and other cost-sharing. Proposals in the 108th Congress will probably also include some of these features for low-income beneficiaries.
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U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

Date: February 6, 2006
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji & Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Description: This report will provide an account of global H5N1-related human infections and deaths, outline U.S. government and international responses to the global spread of H5N1, discuss situations in various countries affected by H5N1, and present some foreign policy issues for Congress.
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Health Care Spending: Past Trends and Projections

Health Care Spending: Past Trends and Projections

Date: April 8, 2004
Creator: Morgan, Paulette C.
Description: This report focuses on trends in personal health care spending, which includes spending on health care goods and services provided to individuals and excludes expenditures for administrative costs, research, and public health activities. Personal health care expenditures have grown considerably over the past 40 years. It is estimated that personal health spending will exceed $2.9 trillion in 2013.
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Medicare Structural Reform: Background and Options

Medicare Structural Reform: Background and Options

Date: January 28, 2003
Creator: Chaikind, Hinda R.; O'Sullivan, Jennifer & Boulanger, Jennifer
Description: THis report provides a brief overview of major issues underlying the debate about possible structural reforms or improvements to the current Medicare system. Medicare is a nationwide health insurance program for the aged and certain disabled persons.
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Implications of the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit for Dual Eligibles and State Medicaid Programs

Implications of the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit for Dual Eligibles and State Medicaid Programs

Date: January 19, 2006
Creator: Tritz, Karen
Description: This report discusses the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA, P.L. 108-173), which added a new Medicare prescription drug benefit, implemented in January 2006. This report focuses on MMA provisions that added a voluntary prescription drug benefit under a new Medicare Part D, and the effect of this new benefit both on individuals who are dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare, and on state Medicaid programs.
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Tax Benefits for Health Insurance: Current Legislation

Tax Benefits for Health Insurance: Current Legislation

Date: February 6, 2006
Creator: Lyke, Bob
Description: This report discusses a variety of potential proposals to change the tax benefits for health insurance and medical expenses, including measures that would expand the availability and attractiveness of health savings accounts (HSAs), or employer tax credits.
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Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers

Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers

Date: January 26, 2005
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Description: This report attempts to answer basic questions about the Military Health Services System (MHSS), its beneficiary population, the medical services it provides, its costs, and major changes that are underway or have been proposed. Citations are made to more detailed CRS studies where appropriate.
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Transitional Medical Assistance (TMA) Under Medicaid

Transitional Medical Assistance (TMA) Under Medicaid

Date: July 24, 2008
Creator: Grady, April
Description: This report provides an overview of transitional medical assistance (TMA). While Section 1925 of the Social Security Act outlines the provisions requiring states to provide TMA for up to 12 months, states have considerable flexibility in designing and implementing their TMA programs.
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Hurricane Katrina: Medicaid Issues

Hurricane Katrina: Medicaid Issues

Date: November 18, 2005
Creator: Baumrucker, Evelyne P; Grady, April; Hearne, Jean P & Herz, Elicia J
Description: This report discusses the following: Medicaid’s rules on eligibility, benefits, and financing in the context of current questions and issues raised by Hurricane Katrina. Recent state actions in response to Medicaid issues raised by the hurricane. Federal Medicaid waiver authority, including information on current activity in this area and the New York Disaster Relief Medicaid waiver granted in response to the September 11 terrorist attacks. Current federal legislation related to Medicaid and Hurricane Katrina relief efforts.
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Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Date: July 24, 2009
Creator: Staman, Jennifer & Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to pass a proposal of this nature, as well as how a court could analyze this type of proposal if there were to be a constitutional challenge based on various provisions of the Fifth Amendment. Finally, this report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion.
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Medicaid Expenditures, FY2003 and FY2004

Medicaid Expenditures, FY2003 and FY2004

Date: January 17, 2006
Creator: Tritz, Karen
Description: This report discusses the federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP), which is the percentage of Medicaid benefit costs paid for by the federal government.
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Environmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors: What Are the Human Health Risks?

Environmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors: What Are the Human Health Risks?

Date: February 4, 2002
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo & Buck, Eugene H.
Description: This report discusses the human health risks, specifically from endocrine disruptors that are chemical compounds in drugs, food, consumer products, or the ambient environment that can interfere with internal biological processes of animals that normally are regulated by their hormones.
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Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3962

Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3962

Date: November 5, 2009
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Description: This report discusses health care reform, which was at the top of the domestic policy agenda for the 111th Congress, driven by concerns about the growing ranks of the uninsured and the unsustainable growth in spending on health care and health insurance.
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Medicaid Reimbursement Policy

Medicaid Reimbursement Policy

Date: November 2, 2004
Creator: Merlis, Mark
Description: This report begins with a summary of basic federal requirements applicable to payments for all services and an overview of major developments in federal Medicaid reimbursement policy over the last 20 years. This overview provides a historical context for current policies and highlights some issues that have been perennial concerns for federal and state policymakers. The next four sections of the report provide a detailed discussion of Medicaid reimbursement for four basic categories of services or providers.
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The Title X Family Planning Program

The Title X Family Planning Program

Date: March 22, 2005
Creator: Coleman, Sharon K.
Description: This report discusses Title X of the Public Health Service Act. The program, enacted in 1970, is the only federal program devoted solely to family planning and related preventive health services. Although the authorization for Title X ended with FY1985, funding for the program has been provided through bills that provide appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies.
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Medicaid and SCHIP: The President’s FY2006 Budget Proposals

Medicaid and SCHIP: The President’s FY2006 Budget Proposals

Date: February 15, 2005
Creator: Grady, April; Hearne, Jean P; Herz, Elicia J; Scott, Christine; Stone-Axelrad, Julie & Tritz, Karen
Description: This report describes the proposal and provides an estimate of the cost or savings based on publicly available information. The report provides a brief background for the proposal and provides a listing of current Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports related to the proposal.
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Tax Benefits for Health Insurance and Expenses: Overview of Current Law and Legislation

Tax Benefits for Health Insurance and Expenses: Overview of Current Law and Legislation

Date: April 28, 2008
Creator: Lyke, Bob & Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: This report discusses how tax policy affects health insurance and health care spending.
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Prescription Drug Coverage Under Medicaid

Prescription Drug Coverage Under Medicaid

Date: February 6, 2008
Creator: Hearne, Jean
Description: Medicaid is a joint federal-state entitlement program that pays for medical services on behalf of certain groups of low-income persons. It is the third largest social program in the federal budget, exceeded only by Social Security and Medicare and is typically the second largest spending item for states. This report discusses prescription drug policies under the program.
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Prescription Drug Coverage Under Medicaid

Prescription Drug Coverage Under Medicaid

Date: February 21, 2006
Creator: Hearne, Jean
Description: Medicaid is a joint federal-state entitlement program that pays for medical services on behalf of certain groups of low-income persons. It is the third largest social program in the federal budget, exceeded only by Social Security and Medicare and is typically the second largest spending item for states. This report discusses prescription drug policies under the program.
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Health Insurance Coverage for Retirees

Health Insurance Coverage for Retirees

Date: March 28, 2006
Creator: Chaikind, Hinda
Description: With the retirement of the baby boom generation looming ahead, employers offering coverage to their retired workers will face a huge future financial commitment. Some employers have already reduced or eliminated their commitment to insure their retirees. Recent trends indicate that retiree health benefits are increasingly subject to higher beneficiary cost-sharing. Further, among employers who provide health insurance for current retirees, their current workers are less likely to be guaranteed these benefits upon retirement. This report discusses issues regarding health insurance coverage for retirees.
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Health Insurance Coverage for Retirees

Health Insurance Coverage for Retirees

Date: January 22, 2007
Creator: Chaikind, Hinda
Description: With the retirement of the baby boom generation looming ahead, employers offering coverage to their retired workers will face a huge future financial commitment. Some employers have already reduced or eliminated their commitment to insure their retirees. Recent trends indicate that retiree health benefits are increasingly subject to higher beneficiary cost-sharing. Further, among employers who provide health insurance for current retirees, their current workers are less likely to be guaranteed these benefits upon retirement. This report discusses issues regarding health insurance coverage for retirees.
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