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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Chemical Facility Security: Issues and Options for the 112th Congress

Chemical Facility Security: Issues and Options for the 112th Congress

Date: January 13, 2012
Creator: Shea, Dana A.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the existing statutory authority and the regulation implementing this authority. It describes several policy issues raised in previous debates regarding chemical facility security and identifies policy options for congressional consideration. Finally, legislation in the 112th Congress is discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Facility Security: Issues and Options for the 112th Congress

Chemical Facility Security: Issues and Options for the 112th Congress

Date: March 8, 2011
Creator: Shea, Dana A.
Description: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has statutory authority to regulate chemical facilities for security purposes. The 112th Congress extended this authority through March 18, 2011. Debate continues in Congress over whether to let this extension expire or continue funding the authority. This report provides a brief overview of the existing statutory authority and the regulation implementing this authority. It describes several policy issues raised in previous debates regarding chemical facility security and identifies policy options for congressional consideration. Finally, legislation in the 112th Congress is discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Facility Security: Issues and Options for the 112th Congress

Chemical Facility Security: Issues and Options for the 112th Congress

Date: April 19, 2011
Creator: Shea, Dana A.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the existing statutory authority that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has to regulate chemical facilities for security purposes, and the regulation implementing this authority. It describes several policy issues raised in previous debates regarding chemical facility security and identifies policy options for congressional consideration, as well as relevant legislation in the 112th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Effects of Radiation from Fukushima Dai-ichi on the U.S. Marine Environment

Effects of Radiation from Fukushima Dai-ichi on the U.S. Marine Environment

Date: April 2, 2012
Creator: Buck, Eugene H. & Upton, Harold F.
Description: The massive Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, caused extensive damage in northeastern Japan, including damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power installation, which resulted in the release of radiation. Concerns arose about the potential effects of this released radiation on the U.S. marine environment and resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Effects of Radiation from Fukushima Daiichi on the U.S. Marine Environment

Effects of Radiation from Fukushima Daiichi on the U.S. Marine Environment

Date: April 5, 2011
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Upton, Harold F. & Folger, Peter
Description: The massive Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, caused extensive damage in northeastern Japan, including damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power installation, which resulted in the release of radiation. This report discusses concerns about the potential effects of this released radiation on the U.S. marine environment and resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Effects of Radiation from Fukushima Daiichi on the U.S. Marine Environment

Effects of Radiation from Fukushima Daiichi on the U.S. Marine Environment

Date: April 15, 2011
Creator: Buck, Eugene H. & Upton, Harold F.
Description: The massive Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, caused extensive damage in northeastern Japan, including damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power installation, which resulted in the release of radiation. This report discusses concerns which have arisen about the potential effects of this released radiation on the U.S. marine environment and resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EDB and the Agriculture Community: A Background Discussion

EDB and the Agriculture Community: A Background Discussion

Date: March 19, 1984
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: EDB is being removed from major agricultural uses because of concerns about possible adverse effects on human health. Regulatory actions to remove EDB from the food system will have impacts on the agricultural community. Uses of EDB in agriculture, regulatory actions to remove EDB from the food system quickly, and possible impacts of those regulatory actions on domestic and international markets are discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary

Date: October 28, 2010
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report summarizes the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the major regulatory programs that mandate reporting by industrial facilities of releases of hazardous chemicals to the environment, as well as local planning to respond in the event of significant, accidental releases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary

Date: April 5, 2012
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report summarizes the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the major regulatory programs that mandate reporting by industrial facilities of releases of potentially hazardous chemicals to the environment, as well as local planning to respond in the event of significant, accidental releases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethylene Dibromide: History, Health Effects, and Policy Questions

Ethylene Dibromide: History, Health Effects, and Policy Questions

Date: May 3, 1984
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: Much attention has recently been focused on the chemical ethylene dibromide (EDB). This chemical has been widely used in leaded gasoline, and has also been used to treat grains, citrus and other crops. It has been found in foods and in groundwater. This paper examines the possible health effects of exposure to EDB, as well as its regulation. The possible health effects and regulation of various chemical and physical alternatives to EDB are also examined. This paper concludes with some policy considerations pertinent to EDB.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Radioactive Tank Wastes: Disposal Authority in the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for FY2005

Radioactive Tank Wastes: Disposal Authority in the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for FY2005

Date: June 2, 2005
Creator: Bearden, David M; Andrews, Anthony & Flynn, Aaron M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act: A Summary of Superfund Cleanup Authorities and Related Provisions of the Act

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act: A Summary of Superfund Cleanup Authorities and Related Provisions of the Act

Date: June 14, 2012
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: This report discusses the background and current status of CERCLA (the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980), which was a response to a growing desire for the federal government to ensure the cleanup of the nation's most contaminated sites to protect the public from potential harm. Concerns for Congress include funding for this act; most funding comes from potentially responsible parties (PRPs), but some also comes from the CERCLA established Hazardous Substance Superfund Trust Fund.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Plant Security

Chemical Plant Security

Date: January 20, 2004
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: Facilities handling large amounts of potentially hazardous chemicals (i.e., chemical facilities) might be of interest to terrorists, either as targets for direct attacks meant to release chemicals into the community or as a source of chemicals for use elsewhere. Because few terrorist attacks have been attempted against chemical facilities in the United States, the risk of death and injury in the near future is estimated to be low, relative to the likelihood of accidents at such facilities or attacks on other targets using conventional weapons. For any individual facility, the risk is very small, but risks may be increasing with potentially severe consequences for human health and the environment. Available evidence indicates that many chemical facilities may lack adequate safeguards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Plant Security

Chemical Plant Security

Date: February 14, 2005
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: Facilities handling large amounts of potentially hazardous chemicals (i.e., chemical facilities) might be of interest to terrorists, either as targets for direct attacks meant to release chemicals into the community or as a source of chemicals for use elsewhere. Because few terrorist attacks have been attempted against chemical facilities in the United States, the risk of death and injury in the near future is estimated to be low, relative to the likelihood of accidents at such facilities or attacks on other targets using conventional weapons. For any individual facility, the risk is very small, but risks may be increasing with potentially severe consequences for human health and the environment. Available evidence indicates that many chemical facilities may lack adequate safeguards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Plant Security

Chemical Plant Security

Date: January 23, 2003
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: Facilities handling large amounts of potentially hazardous chemicals (i.e., chemical facilities) might be of interest to terrorists, either as targets for direct attacks meant to release chemicals into the community or as a source of chemicals for use elsewhere. Because few terrorist attacks have been attempted against chemical facilities in the United States, the risk of death and injury in the near future is estimated to be low, relative to the likelihood of accidents at such facilities or attacks on other targets using conventional weapons. For any individual facility, the risk is very small, but risks may be increasing with potentially severe consequences for human health and the environment. Available evidence indicates that many chemical facilities may lack adequate safeguards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Delaney Clause: The Dilemma of Regulating Health Risk for Pesticide Residues

The Delaney Clause: The Dilemma of Regulating Health Risk for Pesticide Residues

Date: November 9, 1992
Creator: Vogt, Donna U
Description: Under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for establishing tolerances for pesticide residues in or on foods and feeds. Tolerances are legal limits to the amount of pesticide residues that can be found on a raw agricultural commodity at the farm gate or in a processed food. The FFDCA has two sections, 408 and 409, which set up different and inconsistent criteria for setting tolerances for pesticide residues in foods.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Delaney Dilemma: Regulating Pesticide Residues in Foods -- Seminar Proceedings, March 16, 1993

The Delaney Dilemma: Regulating Pesticide Residues in Foods -- Seminar Proceedings, March 16, 1993

Date: May 19, 1993
Creator: Vogt, Donna U
Description: A provision in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Delaney Clause, appears to lower risks in the setting of tolerances for pesticide residues. It prohibits any substance from being added to processed foods if it induces cancer in man or animals. In reality, the provision created a dilemma because the zero-risk statute makes it difficult to regulate pesticides. Because of the prescription of Delaney, tolerances (legal limits) are established differently for carcinogens and non-carcinogens and in raw and processed foods.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Facility Security

Chemical Facility Security

Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: Facilities handling large amounts of potentially hazardous chemical (i.e., chemical facilities) might be of interest to terrorists, either as targets for direct attacks meant to release chemicals into the community or as a source of chemicals for use elsewhere. For any individual facility, the risk is very small, but the risks may be increasing -- with potentially severe consequences for human health and the environment. Congress might choose to rely on existing efforts in the public and private sectors to improve chemical site security over time. Alternatively, Congress could expand existing environmental planning requirements for chemical facilities to require consideration of terrorism. Congress might also enact legislation to reduce risks, either by "hardening" defenses against terrorists or by requiring industries to consider use of safer chemicals, procedures, or processes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan's Sea Shipment of Plutonium

Japan's Sea Shipment of Plutonium

Date: January 15, 1993
Creator: Donnelly, Warren H & Davis, Zachary S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) in the 114th Congress: S. 697, S. 725, and a House Discussion Draft

Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) in the 114th Congress: S. 697, S. 725, and a House Discussion Draft

Date: May 12, 2015
Creator: Yen, Jerry H. & Wyatt, Alexandra M.
Description: This report tracks the legislative status in the 114th Congress of proposals to amend Title I of the Toxic Substances Control Act and includes a discussion of selected issues that have received more attention. This report does not present a comprehensive analysis of all provisions of relevant legislation, nor is this report intended to provide a detailed analysis of precise language and its legal or regulatory interpretation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Liability Exemptions in the Senate Brownfields Bill (S. 350)

The Liability Exemptions in the Senate Brownfields Bill (S. 350)

Date: June 15, 2001
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Waste Trade and the Basel Convention: Background and Update

Waste Trade and the Basel Convention: Background and Update

Date: December 30, 1998
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): A Summary of the Act and Its Major Requirements

The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): A Summary of the Act and Its Major Requirements

Date: February 2, 2010
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report summarizes the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the major regulatory programs dealing with chemical production and distribution in U.S. commerce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): Implementation and New Challenges

The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): Implementation and New Challenges

Date: September 18, 2008
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report provides an overview of basic Toxic Supstances Control Act (TSCA) provisions, briefly examines the history of TSCA implementation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and describes the legal, scientific, and technological developments that are being used to provide support to calls for TSCA reform.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department