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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Chemical Facility Security

Chemical Facility Security

Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: Facilities handling large amounts of potentially hazardous chemical (i.e., chemical facilities) might be of interest to terrorists, either as targets for direct attacks meant to release chemicals into the community or as a source of chemicals for use elsewhere. For any individual facility, the risk is very small, but the risks may be increasing -- with potentially severe consequences for human health and the environment. Congress might choose to rely on existing efforts in the public and private sectors to improve chemical site security over time. Alternatively, Congress could expand existing environmental planning requirements for chemical facilities to require consideration of terrorism. Congress might also enact legislation to reduce risks, either by "hardening" defenses against terrorists or by requiring industries to consider use of safer chemicals, procedures, or processes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hazardous Materials Transportation: Vulnerability to Terrorists, Federal Activities, and Options to Reduce Risks

Hazardous Materials Transportation: Vulnerability to Terrorists, Federal Activities, and Options to Reduce Risks

Date: October 15, 2001
Creator: Rothberg, Paul F
Description: This report discusses the scope and nature of the vulnerability of hazardous materials (hazmats) transportation and its potential relations to terrorists attacks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Radioactive Tank Wastes: Disposal Authority in the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for FY2005

Radioactive Tank Wastes: Disposal Authority in the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for FY2005

Date: June 2, 2005
Creator: Bearden, David M; Andrews, Anthony & Flynn, Aaron M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asbestos Litigation: Prospects for Legislative Resolution

Asbestos Litigation: Prospects for Legislative Resolution

Date: April 20, 2004
Creator: Rappaport, Edward B
Description: This report summarizes H.R. 1283, 106th Congress, the Asbestos Compensation Act of 2000, as ordered to be reported with amendments by the House Committee on the Judiciary on March 16, 2000. The bill would create an administrative procedure for asbestos liability claims. Also, This report discusses such issues thematically, and will be updated to reflect major legislative actions. A section-by-section analysis of S. 852 may be found in CRS Report RS22081, S. 852: The Fairness in Asbestos Injury Resolution Act of 2005.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asbestos Litigation: Prospects for Legislative Resolution

Asbestos Litigation: Prospects for Legislative Resolution

Date: May 20, 2005
Creator: Rappaport, Edward B
Description: This report summarizes H.R. 1283, 106th Congress, the Asbestos Compensation Act of 2000, as ordered to be reported with amendments by the House Committee on the Judiciary on March 16, 2000. The bill would create an administrative procedure for asbestos liability claims. Also, This report discusses such issues thematically, and will be updated to reflect major legislative actions. A section-by-section analysis of S. 852 may be found in CRS Report RS22081, S. 852: The Fairness in Asbestos Injury Resolution Act of 2005.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Facility Security

Chemical Facility Security

Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: Facilities handling large amounts of potentially hazardous chemical (i.e., chemical facilities) might be of interest to terrorists, either as targets for direct attacks meant to release chemicals into the community or as a source of chemicals for use elsewhere. For any individual facility, the risk is very small, but the risks may be increasing -- with potentially severe consequences for human health and the environment. Congress might choose to rely on existing efforts in the public and private sectors to improve chemical site security over time. Alternatively, Congress could expand existing environmental planning requirements for chemical facilities to require consideration of terrorism. Congress might also enact legislation to reduce risks, either by "hardening" defenses against terrorists or by requiring industries to consider use of safer chemicals, procedures, or processes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Facility Security: A Comparison of S. 157 and S. 994

Chemical Facility Security: A Comparison of S. 157 and S. 994

Date: June 11, 2003
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: The 108th Congress is considering legislation to reduce chemical facilities’ vulnerability to acts of terrorism, so as to protect critical sectors of the U.S. infrastructure and reduce risks to public health and the environment. Competing bills, S. 994 and S. 157, have been introduced into the Senate. Both would require chemical facilities to conduct vulnerability assessments and develop and implement site security plans, but the approaches of the bills differ with respect to the chemicals and facilities covered, planning requirements and mechanisms for federal and facility accountability.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethylene Dibromide: Regulatory Background

Ethylene Dibromide: Regulatory Background

Date: February 8, 1984
Creator: Aidala, James V
Description: Much attention has recently been focused on the chemical ethylene dibromide (EDB). This chemical has been widely used in leaded gasoline, and has also been used to treat grains, citrus and other crops. It has been found in foods and in groundwater. This paper examines the possible health effects of exposure to EDB, as well as its regulation. The possible health effects and regulation of various chemical and physical alternatives to EDB are also examined. This paper concludes with some policy considerations pertinent to EDB.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethylene Dibromide: History, Health Effects, and Policy Questions

Ethylene Dibromide: History, Health Effects, and Policy Questions

Date: May 3, 1984
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: Much attention has recently been focused on the chemical ethylene dibromide (EDB). This chemical has been widely used in leaded gasoline, and has also been used to treat grains, citrus and other crops. It has been found in foods and in groundwater. This paper examines the possible health effects of exposure to EDB, as well as its regulation. The possible health effects and regulation of various chemical and physical alternatives to EDB are also examined. This paper concludes with some policy considerations pertinent to EDB.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethylene Dibromide

Ethylene Dibromide

Date: February 15, 1984
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: Much attention has recently been focused on the chemical ethylene dibromide (EDB). This chemical has been widely used in leaded gasoline, and has also been used to treat grains, citrus and other crops. It has been found in foods and in groundwater. This paper examines the possible health effects of exposure to EDB, as well as its regulation. The possible health effects and regulation of various chemical and physical alternatives to EDB are also examined. This paper concludes with some policy considerations pertinent to EDB.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Marine Security of Hazardouse Chemical Cargo

Marine Security of Hazardouse Chemical Cargo

Date: August 26, 2005
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W & Frittelli, John F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EDB and the Agriculture Community: A Background Discussion

EDB and the Agriculture Community: A Background Discussion

Date: March 19, 1984
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: EDB is being removed from major agricultural uses because of concerns about possible adverse effects on human health. Regulatory actions to remove EDB from the food system will have impacts on the agricultural community. Uses of EDB in agriculture, regulatory actions to remove EDB from the food system quickly, and possible impacts of those regulatory actions on domestic and international markets are discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal and State Authority to Regulate Radioactive Waste Disposal and Transportation

Federal and State Authority to Regulate Radioactive Waste Disposal and Transportation

Date: May 11, 1982
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V
Description: There appears to be a growing controversy concerning whether a state has the authority to prevent the federal government from disposing of nuclear wastes within it and transporting nuclear wastes through it. Several states have statutes purporting to veto the federal government's action in these areas. This report investigates whether these state statutes may be unconstitutional and preempted by federal statutes and regulations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Facility Security

Chemical Facility Security

Date: March 24, 2006
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: Facilities handling large amounts of potentially hazardous chemical (i.e., chemical facilities) might be of interest to terrorists, either as targets for direct attacks meant to release chemicals into the community or as a source of chemicals for use elsewhere. For any individual facility, the risk is very small, but the risks may be increasing -- with potentially severe consequences for human health and the environment. Congress might choose to rely on existing efforts in the public and private sectors to improve chemical site security over time. Alternatively, Congress could expand existing environmental planning requirements for chemical facilities to require consideration of terrorism. Congress might also enact legislation to reduce risks, either by "hardening" defenses against terrorists or by requiring industries to consider use of safer chemicals, procedures, or processes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agent Orange: Veterans' Complaints Concerning Exposure to Herbicides in South Vietnam

Agent Orange: Veterans' Complaints Concerning Exposure to Herbicides in South Vietnam

Date: June 25, 1982
Creator: Smith, Pamela W.
Description: From 1962 to 1971, the United States Air Force (USAF) sprayed various herbicide mixtures (chemicals that kill plants) in South Vietnam. The purpose of the spraying was to defoliate jungle growth to deprive the Communist forces of ground cover, and to destroy enemy crops to restrict food supplies. The most extensively used of these herbicide mixtures was known as Agent Orange, a 50:50 mix of two common herbicides called 1,4,5-T and 2,4-D (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). The third chemical present in the mixture in small amounts was TCDD, an inevitable by-product of the manufacture of 2,4,5-T. This chemical, called tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin or simply "dioxin," is highly toxic to laboratory animals when administered in its pure form. CRS has been unable to locate any report of a human death from exposure to pure TCDD. This report discusses the human health effects that have occurred from exposure to TCDD, as well as related Congressional concerns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethylene Dibromide (EDB)

Ethylene Dibromide (EDB)

Date: January 31, 1985
Creator: Congressional Reference Division
Description: Much attention has recently been focused on the chemical ethylene dibromide (EDB). This chemical has been widely used in leaded gasoline, and has also been used to treat grains, citrus and other crops. It has been found in foods and in groundwater. This paper examines the possible health effects of exposure to EDB, as well as its regulation. The possible health effects and regulation of various chemical and physical alternatives to EDB are also examined. This paper concludes with some policy considerations pertinent to EDB.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dioxin: Environmental Impacts and Potential Human Health Effects

Dioxin: Environmental Impacts and Potential Human Health Effects

Date: October 21, 1983
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: This issue brief presents a short background on the physical/chemical properties of dioxin, describes several existing sources of possible human exposure, and highlights what is currently known about its environmental impacts and human health effects. Congressional interest is intense at this time because of large numbers of Vietnam veterans' claims for benefits associated with use of herbicides in that war as well as because of certain incidents of potential significance to health involving disposal of wastes containing dioxin.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asian Soybean Rust: Background and Issues

Asian Soybean Rust: Background and Issues

Date: January 12, 2005
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report discusses the background and issues regarding Asian soybean rust (ASR) that was discovered in the United States in an experimental field in Louisiana. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is coordinating a plan to deal with ASR that encompasses various USDA agencies, state land-grant universities, and industry participants. The arrival of ASR has implications for several public policies including pest control research (particularly the development of resistant varieties), pesticide regulation, disaster assistance, and crop insurance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fruits, Vegetables, and Other Specialty Crops: A Primer on Government Programs

Fruits, Vegetables, and Other Specialty Crops: A Primer on Government Programs

Date: January 26, 2005
Creator: Rawson, Jean M.
Description: U.S. farmers grow more than 250 types of fruit, vegetable, tree nut, flower, ornamental nursery, and turfgrass crops in addition to the major bulk commodity crops. Although specialty crops are ineligible for the federal commodity price and income support programs, they are eligible for other types of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) support, such as crop insurance, disaster assistance, and, under certain conditions, ad hoc market loss assistance payments. This report describes the federal programs of importance to the specialty crop sector, and provides the most recent funding information available for them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Implementing International Agreements on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act

Implementing International Agreements on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act

Date: March 28, 2006
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: The focus of this report is on proposed amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). This report does not constitute a legal analysis of the bills or of existing law. Instead, it begins by describing the three international agreements and relevant provisions of TSCA. The report then summarizes selected provisions of H.R. 4591 and H.R. 4800, as introduced, and compares them in a brief narrative and more detailed table.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Approaches to Chemical Facility Security

Legislative Approaches to Chemical Facility Security

Date: April 12, 2006
Creator: Shea, Dana A
Description: This report discusses current chemical facility security efforts, issues in defining chemical facilities, policy challenges in developing chemical facility security legislation, and the various policy approaches.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Explosions in Space: The Threat of EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse)

Nuclear Explosions in Space: The Threat of EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse)

Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Chatham, George N
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Persistant Organic Pollutants (POPs): Fact Sheet on Three International Agreements

Persistant Organic Pollutants (POPs): Fact Sheet on Three International Agreements

Date: February 15, 2006
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pesticide Use and Water Quality : Are the Laws Complementary or in Conflict?

Pesticide Use and Water Quality : Are the Laws Complementary or in Conflict?

Date: October 27, 2005
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department