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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected Web sites for maps of Iraq. Selected government, library, and organizational Web site addresses are provided. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, and the No-Fly Zone are also provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4989/
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected Web sites for maps of Iraq. Selected government, library, and organizational Web site addresses are provided. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, the No-Fly Zone, and Facilities Used by U.S. Forces in the Gulf are also provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4990/
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected Web sites for maps of Iraq. Selected government, library, and organizational Web site addresses are provided. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, the No-Fly Zone, and Facilities Used by U.S. Forces in the Gulf are also provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4991/
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected Web sites for maps of Iraq. Selected government, library, and organizational Web site addresses are provided. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, Facilities Used by U.S. Forces in the Gulf, and USG Humanitarian Assistance and Reconstruction Activities in Iraq are also provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4992/
Sensitive Security Information (SSI) and Transportation Security: Background and Controversies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5931/
Secrecy Versus Openness: New Proposed Arrangements for Balancing Competing Needs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5932/
Secrecy Versus Openness: New Proposed Arrangements for Balancing Competing Needs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5933/
The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5934/
Toxics Release Inventory: Do Communities Have a Right to Know More?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs454/
Intelligence Identities Protection Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5060/
Interest Groups and Lobbyists: Sources of Information
Interest groups, including those who actively lobby, continue to play a role in the American legislative process. After years of congressional efforts to improve disclosure of interest groups, the Lobbying Disclosure Act (LDA) of 1995 (P.L. 104-65) and the Lobbying Disclosure Technical Amendments Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-166) were signed into law on December 19, 1995, and April 6, 1998, respectively. Both laws seek greater disclosure of interest groups’ activities and more accuracy in reporting their spending. Information on lobbyist registrations and on interest groups in general is available from a variety of online and printed sources, including files available for public inspection. This report provides a list of directories and online services that offer background on the interest groups and lobbyists who focus on legislation in Washington. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3325/
Analysis of Ten Selected Science and Technology Policy Studies
Since the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, a number of reports have been prepared on a broad range of science and technology (S&T) policy issues, most notably dealing with national research and development (R&D) goals, priorities, and budgets, and university-government-industry relationships. This report discusses and analyzes ten of these S&T reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs481/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5297/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5298/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6029/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6030/
"Sensitive But Unclassified" and Other Federal Security Controls on Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy
This report (1) summarizes provisions of several laws and regulations, including the Patent Law, the Atomic Energy Act, International Traffic in Arms Control regulations, the USA PATRIOT Act (P.L. 107-56), the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-188), and the Homeland Security Act (P.L. 107-296), that permit the federal government to restrict disclosure of scientific and technical information that could harm national security; (2) describes the development of federal controls on “sensitive but unclassified” (SBU) scientific and technical information; (3) summarizes current controversies about White House policy on “Sensitive But Unclassified Information,” and “Sensitive Homeland Security Information” (SHSI) issued in March 2002; and (4) identifies controversial issues which might affect the development of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and agency guidelines for sensitive unclassified information, which are expected to be released during 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5300/
"Sensitive But Unclassified" and Other Federal Security Controls on Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy
This report (1) summarizes provisions of several laws and regulations, including the Patent Law, the Atomic Energy Act, International Traffic in Arms Control regulations, the USA PATRIOT Act (P.L. 107-56), the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-188), and the Homeland SecurityAct (P.L. 107-296), that permit the federal government to restrict disclosure of scientific and technical information that could harm national security; (2) describes the development of federal controls on “sensitive but unclassified” (SBU) scientific and technical information; (3) summarizes current controversies about White House policy on “Sensitive But Unclassified Information,” and “Sensitive Homeland Security Information” (SHSI) issued in March 2002; and (4) identifies controversial issues which might affect the development of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and agency guidelines for sensitive unclassified information, which are expected to be released during 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5301/
"Sensitive But Unclassified" and Other Federal Security Controls on Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy
This report (1) summarizes provisions of several laws and regulations, including the Patent Law, the Atomic Energy Act, International Traffic in Arms Control regulations, the USA PATRIOT Act (P.L. 107-56), the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-188), and the Homeland Security Act (P.L. 107-296), that permit the federal government to restrict disclosure of scientific and technical information that could harm national security; (2) describes the development of federal controls on “sensitive but unclassified” (SBU) scientific and technical information; (3) summarizes current controversies about White House policy on “Sensitive But Unclassified Information,” and “Sensitive Homeland Security Information” (SHSI) issued in March 2002; and (4) identifies controversial issues which might affect the development of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and agency guidelines for sensitive unclassified information, which are expected to be released during 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6031/
U.S. Merchandise Trade Data: 1948-2002
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3511/
U.S. Merchandise Trade Data: 1948-2002
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5546/
U.S. Merchandise Trade Statistics: 1948-2000
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1993/
U.S. Merchandise Trade Statistics: 1948-2001
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3512/
Interstate Travel: Constitutional Challenges to the Identification Requirement and Other Transportation Security Regulations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6086/
Interstate Travel: Constitutional Challenges to the Identification Requirement and Other Transportation Security Regulations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6087/
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6488/
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6694/
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6970/
Congressional Access to Executive Branch Information: Legislative Tools
This report begins by reviewing the precedents established during the Washington Administration for withholding documents from Congress. Close examination reveals that the scope of presidential privilege is often exaggerated. Congress had access to more documentation than is commonly believed and might have had more had it pressed for it. Subsequent sections focus on various forms of congressional leverage: the power of the purse, the power to impeach, issuing congressional subpoenas, holding executive officials in contempt, House resolutions of inquiry, GAO investigations, and blocking nominations, all of which may force executive officials to release documents they would otherwise want to keep private and confidential. Even if Presidents announce perfectly plausible grounds for withholding documents, they may have to comply with the congressional will to achieve other more important goals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6983/
Informing Congress: The Role of the Executive in Times of War and Military Conflict, 1941-2001
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7484/
Appropriations Bills: What is Report Language?
When the Senate or House Appropriations Committee reports an appropriations bill to the full Senate or House, respectively, the committee typically publishes a committee report explaining the bill. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of what these reports entail and the language used within them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7624/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7746/
Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8133/
FY2005 Budget Documents: Internet Access and GPO Availability
Every year the President submits to Congress a series of volumes that provide the text of the President’s proposed budget for the coming fiscal year. Neither the Congressional Research Service (CRS) nor the Library of Congress can provide giveaway copies of these documents. This report provides brief descriptions of these budget volumes and related documents, together with Internet addresses, Government Printing Office (GPO) stock numbers, and prices to obtain these publications. It also tells how to find locations of government depository libraries, which can provide both printed copies for reference use and Internet access to the text. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8197/
China: Suspected Acquisition of U.S. Nuclear Weapon Secrets
This CRS Report discusses China’s suspected acquisition of U.S. nuclear weapon secrets, including that on the W88, the newest U.S. nuclear warhead, since the late 1970s. This current controversy, began in early 1999, raises policy issues about whether U.S. security is further threatened by the PRC’s suspected use of U.S. nuclear weapon secrets in its development of nuclear forces, as well as whether the Administration’s response to the security problems is effective or mishandled and whether it fairly used or abused its investigative and prosecuting authority. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8458/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8579/
"Sensitive but Unclassified" Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information
This report traces the evolution of "sensitive but unclassified" or SBU-related controls; summarizes actions taken to protect certain types of scientific and technical information; describes critiques of some control policies; and summarizes proposals and actions, including congressional, executive and other initiatives, to clarify these issues and develop policies that serve various stakeholders. It also raises issues that may warrant further attention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8704/
Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8779/
Federal Enterprise Architecture and E-Government: Issues for Information Technology Management
This report discusses government efforts to increase efficiency. One approach being implemented to reduce duplicative spending and improve cross-agency collaboration is the use of enterprise architecture (EA) planning across the federal government. An EA serves as a blueprint of the business operations of an organization, and the information and technology needed to carry out these functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9154/
Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities
This report summarizes statutory authorities regarding access by the Government, for either foreign intelligence or law enforcement purposes, to information related to telephone calling patterns or practices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9164/
Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration: Analysis of an Energy Department Task Force Report
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9210/
Oversight of Dual-Use Biological Research: The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9212/
The Changing Demographic Profile of the United States
As noted by the Population Reference Bureau, “The U.S. is getting bigger, older, and more diverse.” The objective of this report is to highlight some of the demographic changes that have already occurred since 1950 and to illustrate how these and future trends will reshape the nation in the decades to come (through 2050). This report discusses the current and projected demographic changes if policymakers accelerate efforts to address and adapt to the changing population profile as it relates to a number of essential domains, such as work, retirement, and pensions, private wealth and income security, and the health and well-being of the aging population. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9276/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report is a guide to locating individual service records and military unit histories from the American Revolution to the present. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9541/
The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process
The Legislative Reference Service, it was charged with responding to congressional requests for information. For more than 50 years, this department assisted Congress primarily by providing facts and publications and by transmitting research and analysis done largely by other government agencies, private organizations, and individual scholars. In 1970, Congress enacted a law transforming the Legislative Reference Service into the Congressional Research Service (CRS) and directing CRS to devote more of its efforts and increased resources to performing research and analysis that assists Congress in direct support of the legislative process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9442/
Critical Infrastructure: The National Asset Database
The purpose of this report is to discuss the National Asset Database: what is in it, how it is populated, what the Database apparently is, what it is not, and how it is intended to be used. The report also discusses some of the issues on which Congress could focus its oversight, including appropriation bill language. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9556/
Protection of Security-Related Information
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9566/
Department of Veteran Affairs: Information Security and Information Technology Management Reorganization
On May 3, 2006, the home of a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) data analyst was burglarized, resulting in the theft of a laptop computer and an external data storage device that was reported to contain personal information on more than 26 million veterans and United States military personnel. The VA Secretary testified that he was not informed of the incident until May 16, 2006, almost two weeks after the data had been stolen. VA publicly announced the theft on May 22. On June 29, VA announced that the stolen laptop computer and external hard drive had been recovered intact and that, based on a forensic examination conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the files on the external hard drive had not been compromised. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9513/
The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (S. 2590): Overview and Comparison with H.R. 5060
In an attempt to expand oversight of federal spending, including earmarks, S. 2590 would provide the public with access to an online database containing information about entities that are awarded federal grants, loans, and contracts. This report summarizes S. 2590, compares it to H.R. 5060, and outlines the arguments in favor of the bill and those critical of it. The final section discusses the implications of using the Federal Assistance Award Data System (FAADS) and the Federal Procurement Data System (FPDS) to populate the bill’s proposed database. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9523/
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected websites for maps of Iraq, including government, library, and organizational websites. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, facilities used by U.S. forces in the Gulf, and U.S. government humanitarian assistance and reconstruction activities in Iraq are also provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9709/