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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Date: July 20, 2009
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Date: January 29, 2010
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report reviews the history of the Gang of Four intelligence notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Date: July 14, 2009
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: "Gang of Four" intelligence notifications generally are oral briefings of certain particularly sensitive non-covert action intelligence activities, including principally, but not exclusively, intelligence collection programs, that the Intelligence Community typically limits to the chairmen and ranking members of the two congressional intelligence committees, and at times, but not always, to their respective staff directors. This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
“Gang of Four” Congressional Intelligence Notifications

“Gang of Four” Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: "Gang of Four" intelligence notifications are oral briefings on sensitive non-covert action intelligence activities (including intelligence collection programs) that the Intelligence Community typically limits to the chairmen and ranking members of the two congressional intelligence committees, and at times to their respective staff directors. This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Date: November 19, 2012
Creator: Rollins, John & Lange, Rebecca S.
Description: Report that reviews the history of the Gang of Four intelligence notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Date: September 25, 2009
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities

Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities

Date: February 2, 2010
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B.; Liu, Edward C. & Stevens, Gina
Description: This report summarizes legal authorities regarding access by the government, for either foreign intelligence or law enforcement purposes, to information related to telephone calling patterns or practices. Where pertinent, it also discusses statutory prohibitions against accessing or disclosing such information, along with relevant exceptions to those prohibitions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities

Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities

Date: February 2, 2009
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B.; Liu, Edward C. & Stevens, Gina
Description: This report summarizes legal authorities regarding access by the government, for either foreign intelligence or law enforcement purposes, to information related to telephone calling patterns or practices. Where pertinent, it also discusses statutory prohibitions against accessing or disclosing such information, along with relevant exceptions to those prohibitions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities

Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities

Date: May 17, 2006
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B; Stevens, Gina Marie & Yeh, Brian T
Description: This report summarizes statutory authorities regarding access by the Government, for either foreign intelligence or law enforcement purposes, to information related to telephone calling patterns or practices.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization in Brief

Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization in Brief

Date: May 19, 2015
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Description: This report discusses the legal background associated with the sunset of various provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act and of subsequent related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization in Brief

Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization in Brief

Date: May 19, 2015
Creator: Liu, Edward C. & Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discusses the legal background associated with the sunset of various provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act and of subsequent related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House Apportionment 2000: States Gaining, Losing, and on the Margin1

House Apportionment 2000: States Gaining, Losing, and on the Margin1

Date: January 9, 2001
Creator: Crocker, Royce
Description: This report provides figures regarding the population of the 50 states in 2000, which is 281,424,177, a figure 13.4% greater than in 1990.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Information Quality Act: OMB's Guidance and Initial Implementation

The Information Quality Act: OMB's Guidance and Initial Implementation

Date: August 19, 2004
Creator: Copeland, Curtis W & Simpson, Michael M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Informing Congress: The Role of the Executive in Times of War and Military Conflict, 1941-2001

Informing Congress: The Role of the Executive in Times of War and Military Conflict, 1941-2001

Date: August 2, 2002
Creator: Relyea, Harold C & Halchin, L. Elaine
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Identities Protection Act

Intelligence Identities Protection Act

Date: April 10, 2013
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: This report summarizes the Intelligence Identities Protection Act, P.L. 97-200, enacted by Congress in 1982 to address the unauthorized disclosure of information that exposes covert U.S. intelligence agents. The act also provides exceptions and defenses to prosecution, makes provision for extraterritorial application for offenders who are U.S. citizens or permanent resident aliens, includes reporting requirements to Congress, and sets forth definitions of the terms used in the act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Identities Protection Act

Intelligence Identities Protection Act

Date: January 28, 2011
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: This report summarizes the Intelligence Identities Protection Act, P.L. 97-200, enacted by Congress in 1982 to address the unauthorized disclosure of information that exposes covert U.S. intelligence agents.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Identities Protection Act

Intelligence Identities Protection Act

Date: October 3, 2003
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Spending: Public Disclosure Issues

Intelligence Spending: Public Disclosure Issues

Date: February 15, 2007
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A. & Bazan, Elizabeth B.
Description: This report describes the constituent parts of the intelligence budget, past practice in handling intelligence authorizations and appropriations, the arguments that have been advanced for and against making intelligence spending totals public, a legal analysis of these issues, and a review of the implications of post-Cold War developments on the question. It also describes past congressional interest in keeping intelligence spending totals secret.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Whistleblower Protections: In Brief

Intelligence Whistleblower Protections: In Brief

Date: October 23, 2014
Creator: Perry, Rodney M.
Description: This report describes three sources of Intelligence Community (IC) whistleblower protection including the Intelligence Community Whistleblower Protection Act of 1998 (ICWPA), Presidential Policy Directive 19 (PPD-19), and Title VI of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 (Title VI). Generally speaking, whistleblowers are those who expose misconduct (e.g., fraud, abuse, or illegal activity) within an organization. In the context of the IC, whistleblowers are generally employees or contractors of federal intelligence agencies who bring to light information on agency wrongdoings.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Interest Groups and Lobbyists: Sources of Information

Interest Groups and Lobbyists: Sources of Information

Date: July 18, 2002
Creator: Greenfield, Susan Watkins
Description: Interest groups, including those who actively lobby, continue to play a role in the American legislative process. After years of congressional efforts to improve disclosure of interest groups, the Lobbying Disclosure Act (LDA) of 1995 (P.L. 104-65) and the Lobbying Disclosure Technical Amendments Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-166) were signed into law on December 19, 1995, and April 6, 1998, respectively. Both laws seek greater disclosure of interest groups’ activities and more accuracy in reporting their spending. Information on lobbyist registrations and on interest groups in general is available from a variety of online and printed sources, including files available for public inspection. This report provides a list of directories and online services that offer background on the interest groups and lobbyists who focus on legislation in Washington.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Interstate Travel: Constitutional Challenges to the Identification Requirement and Other Transportation Security Regulations

Interstate Travel: Constitutional Challenges to the Identification Requirement and Other Transportation Security Regulations

Date: November 4, 2004
Creator: Tatelman, Todd B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Interstate Travel: Constitutional Challenges to the Identification Requirement and Other Transportation Security Regulations

Interstate Travel: Constitutional Challenges to the Identification Requirement and Other Transportation Security Regulations

Date: December 21, 2004
Creator: Tatelman, Todd B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Map Sources

Iraq: Map Sources

Date: August 5, 2010
Creator: Fischer, Hannah
Description: This report identifies online sources for maps of Iraq, including government, library, and organizational websites.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Map Sources

Iraq: Map Sources

Date: February 6, 2009
Creator: Fischer, Hannah
Description: This report identifies online sources for maps of Iraq, including government, library, and organizational websites.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department