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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended
This report describes security classification policy and procedure, largely prescribed in a series of successive presidential executive orders issued over the past 50 years. This policy provides the rationale and arrangements for designating information officially secret for reasons of national security, and for its declassification as well. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29519/
Access to Government Information in the United States
The U.S. Constitution makes no specific allowance for any one of the three branches of the federal government to have access to information held by the others. No provision in the U.S. Constitution expressly establishes a procedure for public access to government information. Congress has legislated various public access laws. Among these laws are two records access statutes, The Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, and two meetings access statutes, the Federal Advisory Committee Act, and the Government in the Sunshine Act. This report offers an overview of the four information access laws noted above, and provides citations to additional resources related to these tools. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29513/
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications
"Gang of Four" intelligence notifications generally are oral briefings of certain particularly sensitive non-covert action intelligence activities, including principally, but not exclusively, intelligence collection programs, that the Intelligence Community typically limits to the chairmen and ranking members of the two congressional intelligence committees, and at times, but not always, to their respective staff directors. This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26184/
Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions
Published reports have suggested that in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the Pentagon has expanded its counter-terrorism intelligence activities as part of what the Bush Administration termed the global war on terror. This report discusses the Department of Defense's (DOD) various counter-terrorist intelligence activities, whether or not they constitute classification as "covert action," and the challenge of clarifying the roles and responsibilities of various intelligence activities with regard to clandestine activities. This report examines the statutory procedures governing covert action and associated questions to consider. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26250/
Federal Rulemaking: The Role of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs
This report discusses the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, which created the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) within the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). This report addresses OIRA's responsibilities, controversies related to OIRA, and possible legislative issues involving OIRA, including increasing or decreasing the office's funding and staffing, and improvements in the transparency of OIRA's review process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26217/
Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended
This report describes security classification policy and procedure, largely prescribed in a series of successive presidential executive orders issued over the past 50 years. This policy provides the rationale and arrangements for designating information officially secret for reasons of national security, and for its declassification as well. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29520/
Presidential Libraries: The Federal System and Related Legislation
Through the National Archives and Records Administration, the federal government currently manages and maintains 12 presidential libraries. Inaugurated with the Presidential Libraries Act of 1955, these entities are privately constructed on behalf of former Presidents and, upon completion, are deeded to the federal government. This report provides a brief overview of the federal presidential libraries system and tracks the progress of related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26307/
Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals
The protection of classified national security and other controlled information is of concern not only to the executive branch - which determines what information is to be safeguarded, for the most part - but also to Congress, which uses the information to fulfill its constitutional responsibilities. It has established mechanisms to safeguard controlled information in its custody, although these arrangements have varied over time between the two chambers and among panels in each. This report explores and analyzes said mechanisms. It also discusses various proposals for standardization of and modifications to current policies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10558/
Intelligence Spending: Public Disclosure Issues
This report describes the constituent parts of the intelligence budget, past practice in handling intelligence authorizations and appropriations, the arguments that have been advanced for and against making intelligence spending totals public, a legal analysis of these issues, and a review of the implications of post-Cold War developments on the question. It also describes past congressional interest in keeping intelligence spending totals secret. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26040/
Protection of Security-Related Information
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9566/
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 109th Congress
Enacted in 1966, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) was designed to enable any person -- individual or corporate, regardless of citizenship -- to request, without explanation or justification, presumptive access to existing, identifiable, unpublished, executive branch agency records on any topic. The statute specified nine categories of information that may be permissibly exempted from the rule of disclosure. Disputes over the accessibility of requested records could be ultimately settled in court. The statute has become a somewhat popular tool of inquiry and information gathering for various quarters of American society. This report details the history of the Act, as well as relevant legislation and incidences and the efforts to amend the Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10375/
Critical Infrastructure: The National Asset Database
The purpose of this report is to discuss the National Asset Database: what is in it, how it is populated, what the Database apparently is, what it is not, and how it is intended to be used. The report also discusses some of the issues on which Congress could focus its oversight, including appropriation bill language. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9556/
The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (S. 2590): Overview and Comparison with H.R. 5060
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9523/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9541/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9874/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report is a guide to locating individual service records and military unit histories from the American Revolution to the present. This guide provides referral information for locating individual service records of discharged and deceased veterans. It includes information regarding locating and obtaining active service records. Also included are relevant addresses and websites of government agencies, historical associations, and a select bibliography. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10261/
Department of Veteran Affairs: Information Security and Information Technology Management Reorganization
On May 3, 2006, the home of a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) data analyst was burglarized, resulting in the theft of a laptop computer and an external data storage device that was reported to contain personal information on more than 26 million veterans and United States military personnel. The VA Secretary testified that he was not informed of the incident until May 16, 2006, almost two weeks after the data had been stolen. VA publicly announced the theft on May 22. On June 29, VA announced that the stolen laptop computer and external hard drive had been recovered intact and that, based on a forensic examination conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the files on the external hard drive had not been compromised. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9513/
The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process
The Legislative Reference Service, it was charged with responding to congressional requests for information. For more than 50 years, this department assisted Congress primarily by providing facts and publications and by transmitting research and analysis done largely by other government agencies, private organizations, and individual scholars. In 1970, Congress enacted a law transforming the Legislative Reference Service into the Congressional Research Service (CRS) and directing CRS to devote more of its efforts and increased resources to performing research and analysis that assists Congress in direct support of the legislative process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9442/
Iraq: Map Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9709/
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected websites for maps of Iraq, including government, library, and organizational websites. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, facilities used by U.S. forces in the Gulf, and U.S. government humanitarian assistance and reconstruction activities in Iraq are also provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10253/
Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9164/
Federal Enterprise Architecture and E-Government: Issues for Information Technology Management
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9154/
The Changing Demographic Profile of the United States
As noted by the Population Reference Bureau, “The U.S. is getting bigger, older, and more diverse.” The objective of this report is to highlight some of the demographic changes that have already occurred since 1950 and to illustrate how these and future trends will reshape the nation in the decades to come (through 2050). This report discusses the current and projected demographic changes if policymakers accelerate efforts to address and adapt to the changing population profile as it relates to a number of essential domains, such as work, retirement, and pensions, private wealth and income security, and the health and well-being of the aging population. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9276/
Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8779/
Oversight of Dual-Use Biological Research: The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9212/
"Sensitive but Unclassified" Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information
This report traces the evolution of "sensitive but unclassified" or SBU-related controls; summarizes actions taken to protect certain types of scientific and technical information; describes critiques of some control policies; and summarizes proposals and actions, including congressional, executive and other initiatives, to clarify these issues and develop policies that serve various stakeholders. It also raises issues that may warrant further attention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8704/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8579/
China: Suspected Acquisition of U.S. Nuclear Weapon Secrets
This CRS Report discusses China’s suspected acquisition of U.S. nuclear weapon secrets, including that on the W88, the newest U.S. nuclear warhead, since the late 1970s. This current controversy, began in early 1999, raises policy issues about whether U.S. security is further threatened by the PRC’s suspected use of U.S. nuclear weapon secrets in its development of nuclear forces, as well as whether the Administration’s response to the security problems is effective or mishandled and whether it fairly used or abused its investigative and prosecuting authority. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8458/
Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration: Analysis of an Energy Department Task Force Report
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9210/
Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8133/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7746/
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6694/
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6488/
Freedom of Information Act Amendments: 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6139/
Appropriations Bills: What is Report Language?
When the Senate or House Appropriations Committee reports an appropriations bill to the full Senate or House, respectively, the committee typically publishes a committee report explaining the bill. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of what these reports entail and the language used within them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7624/
Access to Government Information in the United States
The Constitution of the United States makes no specific allowance for any one of the co-equal branches to have access to information held by the others and contains no provision expressly establishing a procedure for, or a right of, public access to government information. Nonetheless, Congress has legislated various public access laws. These include two records access statutes — the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) and the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a) — and two meetings access statutes — the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) and the Government in the Sunshine Act (5 U.S.C. 552b). Moreover, due to the American separation of powers model of government, interbranch conflicts over the accessibility of information are neither unexpected nor necessarily destructive. The federal courts, historically, have been reluctant to review and resolve “political questions” involving information disputes between Congress and the executive branch. Although there is considerable interbranch cooperation, such conflicts probably will continue to occur on occasion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6257/
Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6258/
Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6259/
Interstate Travel: Constitutional Challenges to the Identification Requirement and Other Transportation Security Regulations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6087/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6030/
Interstate Travel: Constitutional Challenges to the Identification Requirement and Other Transportation Security Regulations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6086/
Secrecy Versus Openness: New Proposed Arrangements for Balancing Competing Needs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5933/
FY2005 Budget Documents: Internet Access and GPO Availability
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8197/
Secrecy Versus Openness: New Proposed Arrangements for Balancing Competing Needs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5932/
The Information Quality Act: OMB's Guidance and Initial Implementation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5930/
The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5934/
Sensitive Security Information and Transportation Security: Issues and Congressional Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5929/
The Department of State's Patterns of Global Terrorism Report: Trends, State Sponsors, and Related Issues
This report highlights trends and data found in the State Department’s annual Patterns of Global Terrorism report, (Patterns 2003) and addresses selected issues relating to its content. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5794/
"Sensitive But Unclassified" and Other Federal Security Controls on Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy
This report (1) summarizes provisions of several laws and regulations, including the Patent Law, the Atomic Energy Act, International Traffic in Arms Control regulations, the USA PATRIOT Act (P.L. 107-56), the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-188), and the Homeland Security Act (P.L. 107-296), that permit the federal government to restrict disclosure of scientific and technical information that could harm national security; (2) describes the development of federal controls on “sensitive but unclassified” (SBU) scientific and technical information; (3) summarizes current controversies about White House policy on “Sensitive But Unclassified Information,” and “Sensitive Homeland Security Information” (SHSI) issued in March 2002; and (4) identifies controversial issues which might affect the development of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and agency guidelines for sensitive unclassified information, which are expected to be released during 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6031/
Sensitive Security Information (SSI) and Transportation Security: Background and Controversies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5931/
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