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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Publishing Scientific Papers with Potential Security Risks: Issues for Congress

Publishing Scientific Papers with Potential Security Risks: Issues for Congress

Date: July 12, 2012
Creator: Gottron, Frank & Shea, Dana A.
Description: This report discusses the publication of federally-funded research results including positive aspects (wide dissemination that may drive innovation, job creation, technology development, and the advance of science), and the negatives (that some research results could also be used for malicious purposes). This report describes the underlying controversy, the potential benefits and harms of publishing these manuscripts, the actions taken by domestic and international stakeholders, and options to improve the way research is handled to minimize security concerns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
“Gang of Four” Congressional Intelligence Notifications

“Gang of Four” Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: "Gang of Four" intelligence notifications are oral briefings on sensitive non-covert action intelligence activities (including intelligence collection programs) that the Intelligence Community typically limits to the chairmen and ranking members of the two congressional intelligence committees, and at times to their respective staff directors. This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Changing Demographic Profile of the United States

The Changing Demographic Profile of the United States

Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Shrestha, Laura B. & Heisler, Elayne J.
Description: This report discusses the demographic profile of the United States and highlights demographic changes that have occurred since 1950 to illustrate how trends may affect the demographics of the U.S. through 2050.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The State Secrets Privilege: Preventing the Disclosure of Sensitive National Security Information During Civil Litigation

The State Secrets Privilege: Preventing the Disclosure of Sensitive National Security Information During Civil Litigation

Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Garvey, Todd & Liu, Edward, C.
Description: This report presents an overview of the protections afforded by the state secrets privilege; a discussion of some of the many unresolved issues associated with the privilege; and a selection of high-profile examples of how the privilege has been applied in practice.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources

Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources

Date: July 26, 2012
Creator: Gomez-Granger, Julissa & Leland, Anne
Description: This guide provides information on locating military unit histories and individual service records of discharged, retired, and deceased military personnel. It includes contact information for military history centers, websites for additional sources of research, and a bibliography of other publications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Identities Protection Act

Intelligence Identities Protection Act

Date: January 28, 2011
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: This report summarizes the Intelligence Identities Protection Act, P.L. 97-200, enacted by Congress in 1982 to address the unauthorized disclosure of information that exposes covert U.S. intelligence agents.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals

Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals

Date: January 12, 2011
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr. & Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report discusses the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) position created by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458). It includes an overview of the authorities granted to the DNI by legislation in 2004 and later as well as the varying opinions of Congress regarding new DNI authorities, as well as related legislation from FY2010 through FY2012.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Public Diplomacy: Legislative Proposals to Amend Prohibitions on Disseminating Materials to Domestic Audiences

U.S. Public Diplomacy: Legislative Proposals to Amend Prohibitions on Disseminating Materials to Domestic Audiences

Date: September 21, 2012
Creator: Weed, Matthew C.
Description: This report looks at amendments to the Smith-Mundt Act, proposed by the 112th Congress that would restate provisions to exclude any ban on domestic dissemination of international information materials prepared for foreign public available to a domestic audience. The original legislation was also amended in 1972, and a 1985 provision, popularly known as the Zorinsky Amendment, prohibited domestic dissemination of international information materials and products.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Researching Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Resources for Congressional Staff

Researching Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Resources for Congressional Staff

Date: August 31, 2012
Creator: Mansfield, Jerry W.
Description: This report is designed to introduce congressional staff to selected governmental and nongovernmental sources that are useful in tracking and obtaining information federal legislation and regulations. It includes governmental sources such as the Legislative Information System (LIS), THOMAS, the Government Printing Office's Federal Digital System (FDsys), and U.S. Senate and House websites. Nongovernmental or commercial sources include resources such as HeinOnline and the Congressional Quarterly (CQ) websites. It also highlights classes offered by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) and the Library of Congress Law Library.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework

The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework

Date: January 10, 2011
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: This report provides an overview of the relationship between executive and legislative authority over national security information, and summarizes the current laws that form the legal framework protecting classified information, including current executive orders and some agency regulations pertaining to the handling of unauthorized disclosures of classified information by government officers and employees. The report also summarizes criminal laws that pertain specifically to the unauthorized disclosure of classified information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice, and Recent Developments

Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice, and Recent Developments

Date: August 21, 2012
Creator: Garvey, Todd & Dolan, Alissa M.
Description: This report discusses the background of claims of executive privilege, ending with a look into how President Obama has used them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Date: October 22, 2013
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Date: August 30, 2012
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia
Description: Report discussing the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Date: November 19, 2012
Creator: Rollins, John & Lange, Rebecca S.
Description: Report that reviews the history of the Gang of Four intelligence notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information

Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information

Date: June 24, 2013
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: This report discusses the statutory prohibitions that may be implicated, including the Espionage Act; the extraterritorial application of such statutes; and the First Amendment implications related to such prosecutions against domestic or foreign media organizations and associated individuals. The report provides a summary of previous legislative efforts to criminalize the unauthorized disclosure of classified information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: September 6, 2012
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey C.
Description: Report that offer a list of 200 congressional liaison offices.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Date: June 10, 2013
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: August 13, 2013
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey C.
Description: This report provides a list of roughly 200 congressional liaison offices, and is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: April 26, 2013
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey C.
Description: This report provides a list of roughly 200 congressional liaison offices with phone numbers, addresses, and other contact information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: February 7, 2013
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey C.
Description: This report provides a list of roughly 200 congressional liaison offices with phone numbers, addresses, and other contact information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: January 7, 2014
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey C.
Description: This report provides a list of roughly 200 congressional liaison offices with phone numbers, addresses, and other contact information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA): Background, Legislation, and Policy Issues

The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA): Background, Legislation, and Policy Issues

Date: January 23, 2014
Creator: Ginsberg, Wendy R.
Description: This report provides background on the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), discusses the categories of records FOIA exempts from public release, and analyzes statistics on FOIA administration. It also provides background on several legal and policy issues related to FOIA, including the release of controversial records, the growth in use of certain FOIA exemptions, and the adoption of new technologies to improve FOIA administration. The report concludes with an examination of potential FOIA-related policy options for the 113th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Access to Data from Federally Funded Research: Provisions in OMB Circular A-110

Public Access to Data from Federally Funded Research: Provisions in OMB Circular A-110

Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.
Description: The results of scientific studies are used in making many governmental policy decisions. While the studies are often published, the data on which they are based may not be, even for federally funded research. Before 1999, academic and nonprofit performers of such research were permitted but not required to make their data available to the public through provisions of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). In October 1998, a provision in P.L. 105-277 changed that, requiring that such data be made publicly available. This report provides background on the 1999 revisions to federal policy, a discussion of the impacts of those changes, and an analysis of the issues raised by them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electronic Rulemaking in the Federal Government

Electronic Rulemaking in the Federal Government

Date: May 16, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Curtis W.
Description: This report explores the Bush Administration's initiative of implementing electronic rulemaking (e-rulemaking) in the federal government, the questions regarding how this initiative is being funded, its overall structure, its costs and expected financial benefits, the functionality of some of the applications being used, and its effect on public participation in the rulemaking process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department