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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report discusses the U.S. policy toward the Central Asia. It provides background information and most recent developments in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. U.S. objectives have included promoting free markets, democratization, human rights, energy development, and the forging of East-West and Central Asia-South Asia trade links. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86653/
Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act
This report describes the changes that were made by the FISA Amendments Act within the context of the government's authority to conduct surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122252/
Venezuela: Issues for Congress
This report covers the issues Venezuela poses for Congress. It examines the Venezualian political situation, its economic conditions, the United States policy toward Venezuela, and the legislative initiatives of the 111th Congress regarding this foreign nation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98952/
State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts
This report briefly discusses the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations legislation and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (P.L. 111-8). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462715/
State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts
This report briefly discusses the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations legislation generally and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in Division I, "Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012," of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012 (P.L. 112-74). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463102/
State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts
This report briefly discusses the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations legislation generally and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in Division I, "Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012," of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012 (P.L. 112-74). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462425/
Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act
This report describes the changes that were made by the Foreign Intelligence Suveillance Act (FISA) Amendments Act within the context of the government's authority to conduct surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463018/
Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress
Within the past two decades, prominent foreign policy organizations and foreign policy experts have perceived serious deficiencies in the authorities, organizations, and personnel used to conduct interagency missions that prevent the United States from exercising its power to full advantage. For the 112th Congress, proposals to address these problems may be of interest for their perceived potential not only to enhance performance, but also to save money by streamlining processes, encouraging interagency cooperation, and reducing duplication. These proposals also provide context for current and recent legislation, including the Interagency Personnel Rotation Act of 2011 (S. 1268 and H.R. 2314) and the Contingency Operations Oversight and Interagency Enhancement Act of 2011 (H.R. 3660), as well as the new Global Security Contingency Fund contained in the FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA, Section 1207, H.R. 1540, P.L. 112-81, signed into law December 31, 2011). The FY2012 NDAA requires the President to submit to Congress a “whole-of-government” implementation plan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87196/
Embassy Security: Background, Funding, and the Budget
The September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon led to the closing the following day of 50 of the nearly 260 U.S. embassies and consulates worldwide. A week later, however, all U.S. facilities were open for business. Additionally, three embassies – in Pakistan, Yemen, and Turkmenistan – allowed for voluntary evacuations immediately after the attack. In the months prior to the attack, travel warnings were issued and embassies were put on high alert as Osama bin Laden had issued vague, but credible, threats against Americans and American interests around the world. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1785/
Foreign Policy Budget for FY2002
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1801/
Continuity of Government: Current Federal Arrangements and the Future
Continuity of government refers to the continued functioning of constitutional government under all circumstances. Arrangements for the continued operation of the federal government in the event of a national emergency or catastrophe are specified in law, policy, and plans, some of which are not public information, given their sensitive, contingent status. This report reviews the public record concerning federal continuity of government arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6253/
Continuity of Government: Current Federal Arrangements and the Future
Continuity of government refers to the continued functioning of constitutional government under all circumstances. Arrangements for the continued operation of the federal government in the event of a national emergency or catastrophe are specified in law, policy, and plans, some of which are not public information, given their sensitive, contingent status. This report reviews the public record concerning federal continuity of government arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4966/
Continuity of Government: Current Federal Arrangements and the Future
Continuity of government refers to the continued functioning of constitutional government under all circumstances. Arrangements for the continued operation of the federal government in the event of a national emergency or catastrophe are specified in law, policy, and plans, some of which are not public information, given their sensitive, contingent status. This report reviews the public record concerning federal continuity of government arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7317/
Immunities Accorded to Foreign Diplomats, Consular Officers, and Employees of International Organizations Under U.S. Law
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7929/
Foreign Aid Reform: Studies and Recommendations
This report gives a brief history of modern U.S. foreign aid and modern legislative efforts to reform foreign aid practices. The report also examines various recommendations from recent studies relating to foreign aid reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462653/
The Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review (QDDR)
This report briefly discusses the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review (QDDR) that provides short-, medium-, and long-term blueprints for how to advance U.S. foreign policy objectives and values through the operations of both the Department of State and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462053/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2016 Budget Overview
This report provides an overview of the FY2016 State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (SFOPS) request and account-by-account funding comparisons with FY2014 actuals and FY2015 estimates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503523/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate the communist government of Fidel Castro for much of the past 40 years. Under the Bush Administration, enforcement of U.S. restrictions on Cuba travel has increased, and restrictions on travel and on private remittances to Cuba have been tightened. Several legislative initiatives have been introduced in the 109th Congress that would ease restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. These bills would, among other things, lift overall restrictions on travel to Cuba, lift the overall embargo, and ease restrictions on exporting agricultural commodities to Cuba. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40182/
Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress
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Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
This report discusses details of policy changes regarding travel to Cuba, which have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate Cuba's communist government since the early 1960s. In January 2011, the Obama Administration announced policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances. In the first session of the 112th Congress, there were several attempts aimed at rolling back the Obama Administration's actions easing restrictions on travel and remittances. Several initiatives were also introduced that would further ease or lift such restrictions altogether. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93959/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
On January 14, 2011, the Obama Administration announced a series of policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. This report discusses the history of travel restrictions to Cuba, changes set to take place, and related legislative initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491305/
Nigeria
This report discusses the political climate, development challenges and reform in Nigeria. The report also considers the social issues and security concerns of Nigeria. In addition, other issues are mentioned, as Congress provides oversight for over $600 million in U.S. foreign assistance programs to Nigeria. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503552/
Taiwan-Mainland China Relations: Status, Prospects, U.S. Interests, and Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs211/
Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance
This report discusses the 112th Congress' measures to reduce the federal budget deficit and how this may influence congressional debate over the third-ranking U.S. aid recipient, Pakistan-a country vital to U.S. national security interests but that some say lacks accountability and even credibility. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122210/
Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance
The 112th Congress has been focused measures to reduce the federal budget deficit. This backdrop may influence congressional debate over the third-ranking U.S. aid recipient, Pakistan-a country vital to U.S. national security interests but that some say lacks accountability and even credibility. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83969/
Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance
This report discusses U.S. aid to Pakistan including an overview of current developments, a discussion of aid rendered before and after 9/11, the objectives of requesting aid during FY2012, and various issues that Congress needs to consider relating to this topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93879/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. Some U.S. officials believe that a U.S. military presence is needed beyond the scheduled August 31, 2010 date, by which point all U.S. troops will have been withdrawn. This report also discusses the continued tensions between various Iraqi sociocultural groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26204/
Cuba: Issues for the 110th Congress
This report discusses the current political conditions of Cuba as well as its relationship with the United States. In particular, the report focuses on U.S. policy regarding how to best support political and economic change in one of the world's remaining communist nations, in the context of Fidel Castro's departure from heading the government because of poor health. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463000/
Iraq: Politics, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505550/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96694/
Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress
This report draws on over three dozen studies with recommendations to improve the current national security system. The studies surveyed include three prepared by the Project on National Security Reform, with comprehensive recommendations, four prepared or co-sponsored by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), and two by RAND in conjunction with the American Academy of Diplomats, as well as reports by the Council on Foreign Relations, the Defense Science Board, the National Defense University, and others. This report draws from these studies, as well as a few articles, for recommendations to improve strategy-making, planning, and budgeting; to improve institutional authorities, structures and arrangements; and, to create interagency personnel policies and mechanisms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87197/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2014 Budget and Appropriations
This report provides a brief overview of the FY2014 State Department, Foreign Operations and Related Programs funding request, as well as top-line analysis of pending House and Senate State-Foreign Operations appropriations proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272042/
Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa
This report provides a broad overview of U.S. strategic interests in Africa and the role of U.S. military efforts on the continent as they pertain to the creation of AFRICOM. Although the command is still in the early stages of its development, a discussion of AFRICOM’s mission, its coordination with other government agencies, and its basing and manpower requirements is included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99105/
Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy
This report provides an overview of the U.S. foreign assistance program by answering frequently asked questions on the subject. It is intended to provide a broad view of foreign assistance over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103053/
In Brief: Clarifying the Concept of "Partnership" in National Security
Over the last few years, the term "partnership" has spread like wildfire through official U.S. national security guidance documents and rhetoric. At the Department of Defense (DOD), which spearheaded the proliferation of the term, "partnership" has been used to refer to a broad array of civilian as well as military activities in support of national security.1 At other U.S. government agencies, and at the White House, the use of the term "partnership" has been echoed and applied even more broadly-not only in the national security arena, but also to all facets of U.S. relationships with foreign partners. "Partnership" is not new in either theory or practice. A lack of sufficient strategic direction regarding the use of the term could raise a series of potential concerns for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85422/
India: Chronology of Recent Events
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10181/
China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
The bilateral relationship between the U.S. and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is vitally important, touching on a wide range of areas including, among others, economic policy, security, foreign relations, and human rights. This report addresses relevant policy questions in current U.S.-China relations, discusses trends and key legislation in the current Congress, and provides a chronology of developments and high-level exchanges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10177/
Laos: Background and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10173/
Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis
Report containing information regarding foreign direct investments, including the foreign acquisition of American firms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228123/
America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget
The 112th Congress faces several budget and appropriations decisions that may affect implementation of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010. Signed on January 4, 2011, this law seeks to improve U.S. competitiveness and innovation by authorizing, among other things, increased federal support for research in the physical sciences and engineering; and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The specific debate about FY2013 funding for America COMPETES 2010 provisions will occur within the broader context of the national conversation about U.S. competitiveness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86611/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress
Report that examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publicly available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227794/
Homeland Security: Banking and Financial Infrastructure Continuity
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5042/
China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
The bilateral relationship between the U.S. and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is vitally important, touching on a wide range of areas including, among others, economic policy, security, foreign relations, and human rights. This report addresses relevant policy questions in current U.S.-China relations, discusses trends and key legislation in the current Congress, and provides a chronology of developments and high-level exchanges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9802/
Internet Development and Information Control in the People's Republic of China
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8478/
Foreign Policy Budget Trends: A Thirty-Year Review
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8999/
Emergency Preparedness and Continuity of Operations (COOP) Planning in the Federal Judiciary
This report discusses actions taken by AOUSC following the September 11 attacks, and describes expectations for emergency preparedness and COOP plans in the judiciary. Other sections address issues and policy questions Congress might consider, including matters of the status of judicial emergency and COOP preparedness, and funding for future policy and oversight questions regarding judicial contingency planning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5118/
Iraq: Oil-For-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6911/
Iraq: Oil-For-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6270/
Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9728/
China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
The bilateral relationship between the U.S. and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is vitally important, touching on a wide range of areas including, among others, economic policy, security, foreign relations, and human rights. This report addresses relevant policy questions in current U.S.-China relations, discusses trends and key legislation in the current Congress, and provides a chronology of developments and high-level exchanges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9906/