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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Kosovo and U.S. Policy
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Appropriations for FY2005: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Foreign Operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7535/
State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts
This report briefly discusses the legislation generally and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in Division K, "Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2014," of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-76). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462124/
Pivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration's "Rebalancing" Toward Asia
In the fall of 2011, the Obama Administration issued a series of announcements indicating that the United States would be expanding and intensifying its already significant role in the Asia-Pacific, particularly in the southern part of the region. Given that one purpose of the "pivot" or "rebalancing" toward the Asia-Pacific is to deepen U.S. credibility in the region at a time of fiscal constraint, Congress's oversight and appropriations roles, as well as its approval authority over free trade agreements, will help determine to what extent the Administration's plans are implemented and how various trade-offs are managed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86617/
Public Diplomacy: A Review of Past Recommendations
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Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2007 Appropriations
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Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations
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Public Diplomacy: A Review of Past Recommendations
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Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations
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Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of U.S. Programs and Policy
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Key Foreign and Defense Policy Issues in the 104th Congress
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The "FTO List" and Congress: Sanctioning Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations
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Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of U.S. Programs and Policy
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Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of U.S. Programs and Policy
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Japan's Foreign Aid
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Greece Update
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The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform
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The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform
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Venezuela: Issues for Congress
The United States traditionally has had close relations with Venezuela, a major supplier of foreign oil, but there has been friction in relations under the government of populist President Hugo Chávez. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about human rights, Venezuela's military arms purchases, its relations with Cuba and Iran, and its efforts to export its brand of populism to other Latin American countries. Declining cooperation on anti-drug and anti-terrorism efforts has also been a concern. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86552/
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report discusses the U.S. policy toward the Central Asia. It provides background information and most recent developments in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. U.S. objectives have included promoting free markets, democratization, human rights, energy development, and the forging of East-West and Central Asia-South Asia trade links. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86653/
Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act
This report describes the changes that were made by the FISA Amendments Act within the context of the government's authority to conduct surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122252/
Venezuela: Issues for Congress
This report covers the issues Venezuela poses for Congress. It examines the Venezualian political situation, its economic conditions, the United States policy toward Venezuela, and the legislative initiatives of the 111th Congress regarding this foreign nation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98952/
Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act
This report describes the changes that were made by the Foreign Intelligence Suveillance Act (FISA) Amendments Act within the context of the government's authority to conduct surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463018/
State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts
This report briefly discusses the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations legislation and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (P.L. 111-8). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462715/
State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts
This report briefly discusses the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations legislation generally and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in Division I, "Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012," of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012 (P.L. 112-74). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463102/
State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts
This report briefly discusses the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations legislation generally and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in Division I, "Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012," of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012 (P.L. 112-74). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462425/
Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress
Within the past two decades, prominent foreign policy organizations and foreign policy experts have perceived serious deficiencies in the authorities, organizations, and personnel used to conduct interagency missions that prevent the United States from exercising its power to full advantage. For the 112th Congress, proposals to address these problems may be of interest for their perceived potential not only to enhance performance, but also to save money by streamlining processes, encouraging interagency cooperation, and reducing duplication. These proposals also provide context for current and recent legislation, including the Interagency Personnel Rotation Act of 2011 (S. 1268 and H.R. 2314) and the Contingency Operations Oversight and Interagency Enhancement Act of 2011 (H.R. 3660), as well as the new Global Security Contingency Fund contained in the FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA, Section 1207, H.R. 1540, P.L. 112-81, signed into law December 31, 2011). The FY2012 NDAA requires the President to submit to Congress a “whole-of-government” implementation plan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87196/
Embassy Security: Background, Funding, and the Budget
The September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon led to the closing the following day of 50 of the nearly 260 U.S. embassies and consulates worldwide. A week later, however, all U.S. facilities were open for business. Additionally, three embassies – in Pakistan, Yemen, and Turkmenistan – allowed for voluntary evacuations immediately after the attack. In the months prior to the attack, travel warnings were issued and embassies were put on high alert as Osama bin Laden had issued vague, but credible, threats against Americans and American interests around the world. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1785/
Foreign Policy Budget for FY2002
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Continuity of Government: Current Federal Arrangements and the Future
Continuity of government refers to the continued functioning of constitutional government under all circumstances. Arrangements for the continued operation of the federal government in the event of a national emergency or catastrophe are specified in law, policy, and plans, some of which are not public information, given their sensitive, contingent status. This report reviews the public record concerning federal continuity of government arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6253/
Continuity of Government: Current Federal Arrangements and the Future
Continuity of government refers to the continued functioning of constitutional government under all circumstances. Arrangements for the continued operation of the federal government in the event of a national emergency or catastrophe are specified in law, policy, and plans, some of which are not public information, given their sensitive, contingent status. This report reviews the public record concerning federal continuity of government arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4966/
Continuity of Government: Current Federal Arrangements and the Future
Continuity of government refers to the continued functioning of constitutional government under all circumstances. Arrangements for the continued operation of the federal government in the event of a national emergency or catastrophe are specified in law, policy, and plans, some of which are not public information, given their sensitive, contingent status. This report reviews the public record concerning federal continuity of government arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7317/
Immunities Accorded to Foreign Diplomats, Consular Officers, and Employees of International Organizations Under U.S. Law
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Foreign Aid Reform: Studies and Recommendations
This report gives a brief history of modern U.S. foreign aid and modern legislative efforts to reform foreign aid practices. The report also examines various recommendations from recent studies relating to foreign aid reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462653/
The Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review (QDDR)
This report briefly discusses the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review (QDDR) that provides short-, medium-, and long-term blueprints for how to advance U.S. foreign policy objectives and values through the operations of both the Department of State and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462053/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate the communist government of Fidel Castro for much of the past 40 years. Under the Bush Administration, enforcement of U.S. restrictions on Cuba travel has increased, and restrictions on travel and on private remittances to Cuba have been tightened. Several legislative initiatives have been introduced in the 109th Congress that would ease restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. These bills would, among other things, lift overall restrictions on travel to Cuba, lift the overall embargo, and ease restrictions on exporting agricultural commodities to Cuba. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40182/
Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress
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Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
This report discusses details of policy changes regarding travel to Cuba, which have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate Cuba's communist government since the early 1960s. In January 2011, the Obama Administration announced policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances. In the first session of the 112th Congress, there were several attempts aimed at rolling back the Obama Administration's actions easing restrictions on travel and remittances. Several initiatives were also introduced that would further ease or lift such restrictions altogether. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93959/
Taiwan-Mainland China Relations: Status, Prospects, U.S. Interests, and Options
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Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance
This report discusses the 112th Congress' measures to reduce the federal budget deficit and how this may influence congressional debate over the third-ranking U.S. aid recipient, Pakistan-a country vital to U.S. national security interests but that some say lacks accountability and even credibility. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122210/
Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance
The 112th Congress has been focused measures to reduce the federal budget deficit. This backdrop may influence congressional debate over the third-ranking U.S. aid recipient, Pakistan-a country vital to U.S. national security interests but that some say lacks accountability and even credibility. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83969/
Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance
This report discusses U.S. aid to Pakistan including an overview of current developments, a discussion of aid rendered before and after 9/11, the objectives of requesting aid during FY2012, and various issues that Congress needs to consider relating to this topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93879/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. Some U.S. officials believe that a U.S. military presence is needed beyond the scheduled August 31, 2010 date, by which point all U.S. troops will have been withdrawn. This report also discusses the continued tensions between various Iraqi sociocultural groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26204/
Cuba: Issues for the 110th Congress
This report discusses the current political conditions of Cuba as well as its relationship with the United States. In particular, the report focuses on U.S. policy regarding how to best support political and economic change in one of the world's remaining communist nations, in the context of Fidel Castro's departure from heading the government because of poor health. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463000/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96694/
Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress
This report draws on over three dozen studies with recommendations to improve the current national security system. The studies surveyed include three prepared by the Project on National Security Reform, with comprehensive recommendations, four prepared or co-sponsored by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), and two by RAND in conjunction with the American Academy of Diplomats, as well as reports by the Council on Foreign Relations, the Defense Science Board, the National Defense University, and others. This report draws from these studies, as well as a few articles, for recommendations to improve strategy-making, planning, and budgeting; to improve institutional authorities, structures and arrangements; and, to create interagency personnel policies and mechanisms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87197/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2014 Budget and Appropriations
This report provides a brief overview of the FY2014 State Department, Foreign Operations and Related Programs funding request, as well as top-line analysis of pending House and Senate State-Foreign Operations appropriations proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272042/
Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa
This report provides a broad overview of U.S. strategic interests in Africa and the role of U.S. military efforts on the continent as they pertain to the creation of AFRICOM. Although the command is still in the early stages of its development, a discussion of AFRICOM’s mission, its coordination with other government agencies, and its basing and manpower requirements is included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99105/
Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy
This report provides an overview of the U.S. foreign assistance program by answering frequently asked questions on the subject. It is intended to provide a broad view of foreign assistance over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103053/
In Brief: Clarifying the Concept of "Partnership" in National Security
Over the last few years, the term "partnership" has spread like wildfire through official U.S. national security guidance documents and rhetoric. At the Department of Defense (DOD), which spearheaded the proliferation of the term, "partnership" has been used to refer to a broad array of civilian as well as military activities in support of national security.1 At other U.S. government agencies, and at the White House, the use of the term "partnership" has been echoed and applied even more broadly-not only in the national security arena, but also to all facets of U.S. relationships with foreign partners. "Partnership" is not new in either theory or practice. A lack of sufficient strategic direction regarding the use of the term could raise a series of potential concerns for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85422/