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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
North Korea: A Comparison of S. 1747, S. 2144, and H.R. 757

North Korea: A Comparison of S. 1747, S. 2144, and H.R. 757

Date: January 15, 2016
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Description: This report compares S. 1747, the North Korea Sanctions Enforcement Act of 2015, as introduced in the Senate by Senator Menendez on July 9, 2015; S. 2144, the North Korea Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act of 2015, introduced in the Senate by Senator Gardner on October 6, 2015; and H.R. 757, the North Korea Sanctions Enforcement Act of 2015, introduced in the House by Representative Royce on February 5, 2015, and passed, as amended by the Committee on Foreign Affairs, by the House on January 12, 2016, by a vote of 418-2.
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State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts

State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts

Date: January 5, 2016
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt & Tiersky, Alex
Description: This report briefly discusses the foreign operations appropriations legislation generally and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in Division K, "Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2016," of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 (P.L. 114-113). The State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations legislation provides annual funding for almost all of the international affairs programs.
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India-U.S. Economic Relations

India-U.S. Economic Relations

Date: February 10, 2005
Creator: Morrison, Wayne & Kronstadt, Alan
Description: This report examines the economic and trade relations of the United States and India. Since India is the world's most populous democracy, a U.S. ally in anti-terrorism efforts, and a potentially major export market, India's economic development and its trade relations with the United States are of concern to Congress.
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The European Union: Questions and Answers

The European Union: Questions and Answers

Date: January 19, 2016
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: This report serves as a primer on the European Union and provides a brief description of U.S.-EU relations that may be of interest in the 114th Congress.
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American Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement

American Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement

Date: January 8, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Description: This report identifies four considerations about the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement that are particularly relevant for U.S. food and agriculture. It includes a partial snapshot of some of the higher-profile improvements in market access for agricultural products in the agreement, a summary of selected provisions beyond market access that are of interest to food and agriculture, a brief overview of industry reactions to the agreement, and a review of what would need to occur for the agreement to enter into force for the United States.
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Brazil: Background and U.S. Relations

Brazil: Background and U.S. Relations

Date: February 11, 2016
Creator: Meyer, Peter J.
Description: This report discusses the current political and economic situation in Brazil and examines the U.S.'s commercial relationship with the country. The United States traditionally has enjoyed robust economic and political relations with Brazil on issues ranging from international development to climate change.
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China’s Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy

China’s Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy

Date: November 20, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report examines the importance to the U.S. economy of China’s investment in U.S. securities, as well as U.S. concerns over the possibility that China might unload a large share of those holdings, the likelihood that this would occur, and the potential implications such action could have for the U.S. economy. The report concludes that a large sell-off of Chinese Treasury securities holdings could negatively affect the U.S. economy, at least in the short-run. As a result, such a move could diminish U.S. demand for Chinese products and thus could lower China’s economic growth as well. The issue of China’s large holdings of U.S. securities is part of a broader question that has been raised by many economists: What are the implications of the heavy U.S. reliance on foreign investment to maintain healthy economic growth and to finance the budget deficit?
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Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

Date: September 26, 2008
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Description: This report provides background on events leading up to and surrounding Zimbabwe's most recent elections, in March and June 2008.
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Crisis In Mali

Crisis In Mali

Date: August 16, 2012
Creator: Arieff, Alexis & Johnson, Kelly
Description: This report discusses the West African country of Mali that faces multiple overlapping crises. The country’s political leadership has been uncertain and disputed since a military coup on March 22, 2012, overthrew a democratically elected government in the capital, Bamako.
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Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

Date: February 24, 2006
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: This report provides background and analysis on Sudan, and discusses the humanitarian crises, peace talks, terrorism and U.S. policy towards Sudan.
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Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

Date: March 5, 2014
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé, Dmitriy Medvedev, both of which have steered Russia away from progress toward democratization. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States.
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NATO in Afghanistan: A Test of the Transatlantic Alliance

NATO in Afghanistan: A Test of the Transatlantic Alliance

Date: January 7, 2008
Creator: Gallis, Paul
Description: This report discusses the mission of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Afghanistan, the purpose of which is to stabilize and reconstruct Afghanistan by combating emerging threats such as terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This report also discusses how the Obama Administration has made the Afghanistan conflict a policy priority, and what this stance could mean for potential future endeavors.
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European Union Enlargement

European Union Enlargement

Date: October 25, 2006
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Morelli, Vincent L.
Description: This report discusses the EU's enlargement process, which it views as a historic opportunity to promote stability and prosperity in Europe. On May 1, 2004, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined the European Union (EU), enlarging the Union to 25 members.
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European Union Enlargement

European Union Enlargement

Date: February 4, 2013
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: This report discusses the evolution of the European Union and its process for enlargement. The EU has long viewed the enlargement process as an historic opportunity to further the integration of the continent by peaceful means.
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Congressional Continuity of Operations (COOP): An Overview of Concepts and Challenges

Congressional Continuity of Operations (COOP): An Overview of Concepts and Challenges

Date: March 25, 2005
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric & Seifert, Jeffrey W
Description: This report discusses the circumstances surrounding COOP planning, including provisions for alternative meeting sites and methods for conducting House and Senate meetings and floor sessions when Capitol facilities are not available.
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Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response

Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response

Date: April 22, 2013
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M. & Blanchard, Christopher M.
Description: The popular-uprising-turned-armed-rebellion in Syria has entered its third year, and seems poised to continue, with the government and a bewildering array of militias locked in a bloody struggle of attrition. U.S. officials and many analysts believe that Asad and his supporters will ultimately be forced from power, but few offer specific, credible timetables for a resolution to the crisis. This report examines the current status of the conflict and discusses future policy considerations.
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North Korea: Economic Sanctions

North Korea: Economic Sanctions

Date: January 12, 2007
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Description: U.S. economic sanctions are imposed against North Korea for five primary reasons: (1) North Korea is seen as posing a threat to U.S. national security; (2) North Korea is designated by the Secretary of State as a state sponsor or supporter of international terrorism; (3) North Korea is a Marxist-Leninist state, with a Communist government; (4) North Korea has been found by the State Department to have engaged in proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and (5) North Korea has been found by the President to have detonated a nuclear explosive device. This paper explains the U.S. economic sanctions currently in place, and summarizes recent events as they relate to the potential application of additional restrictions.
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Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Date: December 15, 2005
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Description: This report describes the nature and scope of the problem of trafficking in persons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The report then describes U.S. efforts to deal with trafficking in persons in the region, as well as discusses the successes and failures of some recent country and regional anti-trafficking efforts. The report concludes by raising several issues for policy consideration that may be helpful as the 109th Congress continues to address human trafficking as part of its authorization, appropriations, and oversight activities.
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U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit: Frequently Asked Questions and Background

U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit: Frequently Asked Questions and Background

Date: July 31, 2014
Creator: Cook, Nicolas; Arieff, Alexis; Blanchard, Lauren P. & Williams, Brock R.
Description: This report provides information about the early August 2014 U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit in Washington, DC, and policy issues likely to be addressed by participants in the summit and other events being held in conjunction with it.
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Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

Date: April 30, 2007
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Description: This report provides an historical overview of Israel, and discusses the most recent developments in Israel, such as the government and politics, economy, foreign policy, and relations with United States.
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India-U.S. Relations

India-U.S. Relations

Date: October 2, 2007
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: This report focuses on relations between the United States and India, a relationship deepened in the Clinton and G. W. Bush Administrations. The Obama Administrations seeks to continue developing this relationship. Continuing U.S. interest in South Asia focuses on ongoing tensions between India and Pakistan, the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles, human rights issues, caste-based discrimination, and India's economic expansion.
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Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Date: March 12, 2007
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. Some U.S. officials believe that a U.S. military presence is needed beyond the scheduled August 31, 2010 date, by which point all U.S. troops will have been withdrawn. This report also discusses the continued tensions between various Iraqi sociocultural groups.
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Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

Date: March 4, 2008
Creator: Goldman, Stuart D.
Description: This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé, Dmitriy Medvedev. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States.
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Syria: Issues for the 112th Congress and Background on U.S. Sanctions

Syria: Issues for the 112th Congress and Background on U.S. Sanctions

Date: June 3, 2011
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M.
Description: This report analyzes bilateral issues between the United States and Syria, particularly regarding the unrest in Syria and the Asad government's violent response. It includes descriptions of recent developments, issues for Congress, U.S.-Syrian relations, U.S. Sanctions, and future prospects related to the role of Congress.
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