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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: May 14, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The uprising that began in Bahrain on February 14, 2011, following the revolt that overthrew Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak three days earlier, began a political crisis that defies resolution. The ongoing unrest demonstrates that the grievances of the Shiite majority over the distribution of power and economic opportunities were not satisfied by prior efforts. The bulk of the Shiite majority in Bahrain says it demands a constitutional monarchy in which an elected parliament produces the government, but the Sunni minority believes the Shiites want nothing less than outright rule. This report looks at Bahrain's recent and current relationship with the U.S. and reasons for the unrest relating to socioeconomic issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: July 16, 2013
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. This report focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with Iran and with the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: August 4, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: After instability during the late 1990s, Bahrain undertook substantial political reforms, but the Shiite majority continues to simmer over the Sunni-led government's perceived manipulation of laws and regulations to maintain its grip on power. Bahrain's stability has long been a key U.S. interest; it has hosted U.S. naval headquarters for the Gulf for nearly 60 years. In September 2004, the United States and Bahrain signed a free trade agreement (FTA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: March 15, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. This report focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with Iran and Bahrain's relationship with the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: June 29, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. This report focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with Iran and Bahrain's relationship with the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: June 21, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. This report focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with the United States and with regional issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: April 20, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. This report focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with the United States and with regional issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Opinions

China's Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Opinions

Date: November 29, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: Many are concerned that China’s currency is undervalued and that this injures the U.S. economy. The Chinese authorities say they are not manipulating their currency and they want to move as soon as possible to a market-based yuan. A new exchange rate procedure was announced in July 2005 but has not resulted in meaningful changes in the yuan’s international value. This report reviews the issues and discusses alternative approaches the United States might take to encourage more rapid reform.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Currency Peg: A Summary of the Economic Issues

China's Currency Peg: A Summary of the Economic Issues

Date: April 25, 2005
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report evaluates that assertion, and considers other effects China’s peg has on the U.S. economy. These include the beneficial effects on consumption, interest rates, and investment spending. Nationwide, these effects should offset job loss in the trade sector, at least in the medium term. Several bills have been introduced in the 109th Congress to address China’s currency policy, including H.R. 1216, H.R. 1498, H.R. 1575, S. 14, S. 295, S. 377, and S. 593; some would impose trade sanctions against China unless it accepted a market-based system of currency valuation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China’s Currency: U.S. Options

China’s Currency: U.S. Options

Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: In recent years, the United States and China have disagreed whether China’s national currency, the yuan or renminbi, is properly valued compared to the U.S. dollar and whether China is manipulating its currency.1 The United States has pushed China to raise the value of its currency. Chinese officials say they want to make their exchange rate system more flexible, but China also needs long-term stability in its currency value in order to avoid dislocations. Chinese officials also say they will not bow to foreign pressure. China announced a new exchange rate procedure on July 21, 2005. This report summarizes this controversy, it describes actions and positions taken by the United States, China and other countries, and it discusses various approaches the United States might use to address this concern.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hong Kong - U.S. Economic Relations

Hong Kong - U.S. Economic Relations

Date: January 27, 2005
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Date: July 22, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Date: June 27, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kazakhstan: Current Developments and U.S. Interests

Kazakhstan: Current Developments and U.S. Interests

Date: May 4, 2004
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hong Kong - U.S. Economic Relations

Hong Kong - U.S. Economic Relations

Date: April 7, 2004
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Morocco-U.S. Free Trade Agreement

Morocco-U.S. Free Trade Agreement

Date: April 13, 2005
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Morocco-U.S. Free Trade Agreement

Morocco-U.S. Free Trade Agreement

Date: May 26, 2005
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China-U.S. Trade Issues

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Date: August 2, 2004
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past several years. China is now the third largest U.S. trading partner, its second largest source of imports, and its fourth largest export market. However, U.S.-China commercial ties have been strained by a number of issues, including a surging U.S. trade deficit with China, China's refusal to float its currency, and failure to fully comply with its World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments, especially its failure to provide protection for U.S. intellectual property rights (IPR). This report explores these issues in detail, especially concerning the lack of protection for U.S. IPR.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nigeria in Political Transition

Nigeria in Political Transition

Date: June 3, 2005
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraqi Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Capabilities

Iraqi Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Capabilities

Date: September 4, 1998
Creator: Bowman, Steven R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraqi Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Capabilities

Iraqi Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Capabilities

Date: February 17, 1998
Creator: Bowman, Steven R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Trade Policy Towards Japan: Where Do We Go From Here?

U.S. Trade Policy Towards Japan: Where Do We Go From Here?

Date: May 8, 1989
Creator: Cooper, William H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan-U.S. Trade: Results of Trade Negotiations - An Issue Overview

Japan-U.S. Trade: Results of Trade Negotiations - An Issue Overview

Date: November 24, 1993
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department