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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 2581 - 2604 of 4,103
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China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: June 8, 2006
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: Throughout much of the George W. Bush Administration, U.S.-China relations have remained unusually smooth and stable. But U.S. policy toward China now appears to be subject to competing reassessments. State Department officials late in 2005 unveiled what they described as a new policy framework for the relationship -- one in which the United States was willing to work cooperatively with a non-democratic China while encouraging Beijing to become a "responsible stakeholder" in the global system. Other U.S. policymakers appear to be adopting somewhat tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, expressing their concerns about strong PRC economic growth and a more assertive and influential PRC diplomacy in the international arena.
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Lebanon

Lebanon

Date: June 8, 2006
Creator: Mark, Clyde R
Description: None
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Lebanon

Lebanon

Date: June 8, 2006
Creator: Prados, Alfred B.
Description: The United States and Lebanon continue to enjoy good relations. Prominent current issues between the United States and Lebanon include progress toward a Lebanon-Israel peace treaty, U.S. aid to Lebanon, and Lebanon's capacity to stop Hizballah militia attacks on Israel. Lebanon's government is based in part on a 1943 agreement that called for a Maronite Christian President, a Sunni Muslim Prime Minister, and a Shi'ite Muslim Speaker of the National Assembly. This report explores the above, as well as the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri and the formation of a new Lebanese government following the withdrawal of Syrian forces from Lebanon.
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Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices

Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices

Date: June 8, 2006
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: Under the Bush Administration, U.S.-China-Taiwan relations have undergone a number of changes. Initially, the new Administration seemed to abandon the long-standing U.S. policy of "strategic ambiguity" on Taiwan in favor of "strategic clarity" that placed more emphasis on Taiwan's interests and less on PRC concerns. President Bush's first term has been a time of increasing complexity and unpredictability in Taiwan's political environment. Political trends in Taiwan have raised anxieties about its future and the implications for U.S. policy.
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Korea: U.S.-Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress

Korea: U.S.-Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress

Date: June 7, 2006
Creator: Niksch, Larry A.
Description: North Korea's decision in December 2002 to restart nuclear installations at Yongbyon that were shut down under the U.S.-North Korean Agreed Framework of 1994 and its announced withdrawal from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty create an acute foreign policy problem for the United States. The Bush Administration maintains that North Korea must do certain things, such as the dismantling of both its plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) programs, as well as the institution of financial sanctions at foreign banks and companies that cooperate with North Korea in international illegal activities. Differences have emerged between the Bush Administration and South Korea over policies toward North Korea; South Korea has become critical of the Bush Administration's policies and the U.S. military presence. South Korea emphasizes bilateral reconciliation with North Korea, anti-U.S. demonstrations erupted in 2002, and Roh Moo-hyun was elected President after criticizing the United States.
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Korea:  U.S.-Korean Relations--Issues for Congress

Korea: U.S.-Korean Relations--Issues for Congress

Date: June 7, 2006
Creator: Niksch, Larry A
Description: None
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Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues

Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues

Date: June 6, 2006
Creator: Prados, Alfred B.
Description: The country of Syria is a prominent player in the Middle East scene, due to a number of border disputes with the region, as well as problems of resource allocation, and political rivalries have caused frequent tensions between Syria and its neighbors. An array of bilateral issues continue to affect relations between the United States and Syria: the course of Arab-Israeli talks; questions of arms proliferation; Syrian connections with terrorist activity; Syria's role in Lebanon; and Syria's opposition to the U.S. occupation in Iraq. This report explores these issues, as well as the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri--who had been a vocal Syrian critic--and the Syria Accountability Act, which President Bush signed on December 12, 2003, and which imposes sanctions upon Syria unless it halts support for terrorism.
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Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: June 5, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of all the former Central Asian republics, supported their admission into Western organizations, and elicited Turkish support to counter Iranian influence in the region. Soon after the terrorist attacks on America on September 11, 2001, all the Central Asia states offered overflight and other support to coalition anti-terrorist efforts in Afghanistan. After September 11, 2001, U.S. policy emphasized bolstering the security of the Central Asian states to help them combat terrorism, proliferation, and arms trafficking. Other U.S. objectives include promoting democratization, free markets, human rights, and energy development, as well as integrating these states into the international community.
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Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: June 5, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns and relations with countries in central Asia. The report discusses issues such as Fostering Pro-Western Orientations, Obstacles to Peace and Independence, Democratization and Human Rights, Security and Arms Control, Trade and Investment, and provides an Aid Overview.
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Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Options

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Options

Date: June 2, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran, much of which has centered on the nature of the current regime. Some experts believe that Iran, a country of almost 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran’s regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region. President Bush, in his January 29, 2002, State of the Union message, labeled Iran part of an “axis of evil” along with Iraq and North Korea.
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Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Date: June 2, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: According to an Administration national security strategy document released on March 16, 2006, the United States "may face no greater challenge from a single country than Iran." The Bush Administration announced May 31, 2006, that it would negotiate with Iran in concert with U.S. allies. If diplomacy and sanctions do not succeed, some advocate military action against Iran's nuclear infrastructure rather than acquiescence to a nuclear-armed Iran. U.S. concerns regarding Iran include Iran's nuclear program, Iran's influence on Iraq by way of providing arms and other material assistance to Shiite Islamist militias, and Iran's human rights practices, which include strict limits on free expression and repression of ethnic and religious minorities.
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Nigeria in Political Transition

Nigeria in Political Transition

Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: On June 8, 1998, General Sani Abacha, the military leader who took power in Nigeria in 1993, died of a reported heart attack and was replaced by General Abdulsalam Abubakar. General Abubakar released political prisoners and initiated political, economic, and social reforms. Relations between the United States and Nigeria improved with the subsequent transfer of power to a civilian government. Nigeria continues to make progress in strengthening its fragile democracy but faces serious economic challenges. Nigeria remains relatively stable, although ethnic and religious clashes in some parts of the country have led to massive displacement of civilian populations.
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Nigeria in Political Transition

Nigeria in Political Transition

Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: None
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India-U.S. Relations

India-U.S. Relations

Date: May 26, 2006
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: The end of the Cold War freed India-U.S. relations from the constraints of global bipolarity, but interactions continued for a decade to be affected by the burden of history, most notably the longstanding India-Pakistan rivalry and nuclear weapons proliferation in the region. Recent years, however, have witnessed a sea change in bilateral relations, with more positive interactions becoming the norm. India's swift offer of full support for U.S.-led counterterrorism operations after September 2001 was widely viewed as reflective of such change. The United States seeks to curtail the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles in South Asia. Continuing U.S. interest in South Asia focuses on ongoing tensions between India and Pakistan. U.S. concerns about human rights issues related to regional dissidence and separatism in several Indian states continue. Many U.S. business interests view India as a lucrative market and candidate for foreign investment.
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China and Falun Gong

China and Falun Gong

Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Description: “Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters.
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Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2007 Appropriations

Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2007 Appropriations

Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie & Epstein, Susan B.
Description: This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and the Senate Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
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Norht Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program

Norht Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program

Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Niksch, Larry A.
Description: North Korea's decisions to restart nuclear installations at Yongbyon that were shut down under the U.S.-South Korean Agreed Framework of 1994 and to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty create an acute foreign policy problem for the United States. Restarting the Yongbyon facilities opens up a possible North Korean intent to stage a "nuclear breakout" of its nuclear program and openly produce nuclear weapons. The main objective of the Bush Administration is to secure the dismantling of North Korea's plutonium and uranium-based nuclear programs. China, South Korea, and Russia have criticized the Bush Administration for not negotiating directly with North Korea, and they voice opposition to economic sanctions and to the use force against Pyongyang. China, Russia, and even South Korea increasingly have expressed support for North Korea's position in six-party talks facilitated by China, but the talks have made little progress.
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North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program

North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program

Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Niksch, Larry A
Description: None
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India: Chronology of Recent Events

India: Chronology of Recent Events

Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: This report provides a reverse chronology of recent events involving India and India-U.S. relations. Sources include, but are not limited to, major newswires, the U.S. Department of State, and Indian news outlets. For a substantive review, see CRS Issue Brief IB93097, India-U.S. Relations.
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India: Chronology of Recent Events

India: Chronology of Recent Events

Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: This report provides a reverse chronology of recent events involving India and India-U.S. relations. Sources include, but are not limited to, major newswires, the U.S. Department of State, and Indian news outlets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: The country of Panama has made significant political and economic progress since the 1989 U.S. military intervention that ousted the regime of General Manuel Noriega from power. The current President, Martin Torrijos, has faced significant challenges, including dealing with the funding deficits of the country's social security fund; developing plans for the expansion of the Panama Canal; and combating unemployment and poverty. The U.S. has close relations with Panama, and both countries currently cooperate on counternarcotics efforts, the security of the Panama Canal and the Panama-Colombia border, and negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement. This report describes all of the above; the aforementioned U.S.-Panamanian negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement is detailed in particular.
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Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P
Description: None
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Serbia and Montenegro Union: Background and Pending Dissolution

Serbia and Montenegro Union: Background and Pending Dissolution

Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Kim, Julie
Description: On May 21, 2006, Montenegro held a long-awaited referendum on independence. Serbia and Montenegro were the last remnants of the former Yugoslavia to exist in a common state. They formed a new, highly decentralized state union under an agreement brokered by the EU in 2002-2003, which allowed for either republic to hold a referendum after three years. Serbia's political leaders supported continuation of the union but recognized the referendum outcome. The impending dissolution of the Serbia and Montenegro union comes at the same time as the international community is conducting talks on the future status of Kosovo, a disputed province in Serbia.
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France: Factors Shaping Foreign Policy, and Issues in U.S.-French Relations

France: Factors Shaping Foreign Policy, and Issues in U.S.-French Relations

Date: May 19, 2006
Creator: Gallis, Paul E
Description: This report examines the key factors that shape French foreign policy. From that context, it analyzes some of the reasons for the tensions in and the accomplishments of U.S.-French relations.
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