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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Eurozone Crisis: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the causes, challenges, political dynamics, and other aspects of the Eurozone's economic crisis and discusses the related issues that Congress may address, such as: how this situation will impact the U.S. economy, IMF (International Monetary Fund) involvement, and how the US and Europe will cooperate to solve these issues. The report also contains supplemental figures and charts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122220/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report provides an overview of Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions. This report also addresses ongoing governmental instabilities and their causes, as well as U.S. concerns about possible Iranian influence in Iraq as U.S. forces depart the country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122340/
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report discusses the history and political background of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia since their breakaway from the former Soviet Union at the end of 1991. It looks at key issues for the 112th Congress including economies, energy, regional politics, local crime, and terrorism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267885/
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Security Issues and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report discusses the internal and external security concerns of the South Caucasus states and U.S. interests and policy toward the region. The countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are generally considered as comprising the South Caucasus region, which borders Russia, Turkey, and Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9333/
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9435/
The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications
This report is designed to assist Members of Congress as they consider the costs and benefits of the U.S.-South Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA.) It examines the provisions of the KORUS FTA in the context of the overall U.S.-South Korean economic relationship, U.S. objectives, and South Korean objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29703/
Haiti: Efforts to Restore President Aristide, 1991-1994
This report tracks the efforts to restore to office President Aristide of Haiti between the years 1991-1994. During this period, the main U.S. foreign policy concern was the restoration of the democratic process to Haiti. Closely related to this was the issue of Haitians attempting to flee to the United States by boat. Congressional concerns focused on human rights, Haitian migration, socioeconomic conditions, and drug trafficking. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26103/
China and the Global Financial Crisis: Implications for the United States
This report discusses the economy of China and how it is has been affected by the recent economic downturn. China has recently enjoyed one of the world's fastest-growing economies and has been a major contributor to world economic growth, but several Chinese industries have been hard by the crisis, and millions of workers have been laid off. This report explores this issue in brief, including what actions the Chinese government is taking to combat the problem, as well as what actions China may take to assist in stabilizing the U.S. economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26347/
The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications
This report is designed to assist Members of Congress as they consider the costs and benefits of the U.S.-South Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA.) It examines the provisions of the KORUS FTA in the context of the overall U.S.-South Korean economic relationship, U.S. objectives, and South Korean objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40230/
Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the relationship between the United States and Japan, including Japanese efforts to support the U.S. in the wake of the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attacks and the two countries' economic ties, especially with regards to the recent economic downturn. This report also discusses the general political atmosphere of Japan, including the recent and ongoing political turmoil in Tokyo. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29671/
U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts
This report discusses the U.S. trade deficit in light of the 2008 global financial crisis, with emphasis on international trade and U.S. trade policy, most recent developments in trade of goods and service, trade forecasts for the future, and how issues such as the U.S. trade deficit and international trade, particularly with China, are commonly perceived. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29678/
North Korea's 2009 Nuclear Test: Containment, Monitoring, Implications
This report discusses the implications of North Korea's May 25, 2009, underground nuclear test, related issues such as the the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), containment of radioactive materials, and other concerns for Congress, such as improving nuclear monitoring capability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31355/
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)
This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. This report discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. This report also discusses U.S. concerns that other nations, e.g., U.S. allies, Russia, and China, are not as strict with their economic sanctions against Iran, and how U.S. policymakers are combating this reticence with various pieces of legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26309/
U.S.-South Korea Beef Dispute: Issues and Status
This report describes the beef provisions in the Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) and the separate bilateral protocols that the United States has negotiated in order to secure the lifting of South Korea's ban on U.S. beef imports, imposed after the discovery of mad cow disease in late 2003. It also summarizes U.S. beef export developments to this key market before and after the ban and since these protocols took effect; and lays out the outstanding issues on U.S. beef access that will likely need to be resolved to facilitate congressional consideration of the KORUS FTA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29712/
The Kaesong North-South Korean Industrial Complex
This purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the role, purposes, and results of the Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC) in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) and examine U.S. interests, policy issues, options, and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33066/
Japan 2011 Disaster: CRS Experts
The following table provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to the nuclear and humanitarian disaster unfolding in Japan. Specific policy areas are identified. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33025/
Japan 2011 Earthquake: U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Response
This report discusses the United States' Department of Defense's (DOD) Japan 2011 Earthquake relief efforts, designated "Operation Tomodachi," which is Japanese for "friend." The report includes an overview of the situation, funding for DOD efforts, naval activities, air activities, and a historical overview of U.S. military presence in Japan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33024/
Fukushima Nuclear Crisis
This report briefly discusses the March 11, 2001, earthquake off the east coast of Honshu, Japan's largest island. The earthquake caused an automatic shutdown of eleven of Japan's fifty-five operating nuclear power plants. The plants closes to the earthquake's epicenter, Fukushima and Onagawa, were damaged by the earthquake and resulting tsunami. This report also discusses efforts by the United States and other countries to provide assistance to Japan to deal with the nuclear crisis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33026/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report provides an overview of Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions. This report also addresses ongoing governmental instabilities and their causes, as well as U.S. concerns about possible Iranian influence in Iraq as U.S. forces depart the country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33099/
Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America: An Overview and Selected Issues
The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP) is a trilateral initiative that was launched in March 2005 for the purpose of increasing and enhancing security and prosperity in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. This initiative promoted communication and cooperation across several key policy areas of mutual interest, such as improving certain sectors of the economy, developing higher health and safety standards, and addressing environmental concerns. This report describes this initiative in brief detail, including summaries of several SPP-related meetings between the three countries' leaders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26336/
The Kaesong North-South Korean Industrial Complex
This purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the role, purposes, and results of the Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC) in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) and examine U.S. interests, policy issues, options, and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40227/
Strategic Defense Initiative: Selected References, 1986-1988
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Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI): Mission Objectives for Directing the Program
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The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7747/
China-Southeast Asia Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications for the United States
This report explores what is behind this shift in China - ASEAN relations and how it may affect American interests in the region. The key policy issue for Congress is to assess how the United States should view China’s expanding posture in Southeast Asia and decide what is the best way to react to this phenomenon. This report may be of assistance to Congressional decision makers as they review legislation such as H.Res. 43 or H.Con.Res. 33 (109th Congress). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6247/
European Views and Policies Toward the Middle East
Managing policy differences on a range of issues emanating from the Middle East poses serious challenges for the United States and its European allies and friends. The most vitriolic dispute has centered on the conflict in Iraq. However, divisions over how best to approach the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict, manage Iran and Syria, and combat terrorism also persist. How deep and lasting the clash over Iraq and subsequent Middle East policies will be to transatlantic relations will likely depend on several factors, including whether Washington and European capitals can cooperate more robustly to rebuild Iraq; whether Europeans perceive a renewed U.S. commitment to revive the Middle East peace process; and whether differences over Mideast issues spill over into NATO or impede EU efforts to forge a deeper Union. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6248/
China-Southeast Asia Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications for the United States
This report explores what is behind this shift in China - ASEAN relations and how it may affect American interests in the region. The key policy issue for Congress is to assess how the United States should view China’s expanding posture in Southeast Asia and decide what is the best way to react to this phenomenon. This report may be of assistance to Congressional decision makers as they review legislation such as H.Res. 43 or H.Con.Res. 33 (109th Congress). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8771/
El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8937/
El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8898/
El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8897/
East Asian Regional Architecture: New Economic and Security Arrangements and U.S. Policy
The end of the Cold War, the rise of China, globalization, free trade agreements, the war on terror, and an institutional approach to keeping the peace is causing dramatic shifts in relationships among countries in East Asia. A new regional architecture in the form of trade, financial, and political arrangements among countries of East Asia is developing that has significant implications for U.S. interests and policy. This report examines this regional architecture with a focus on China, South Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia. The types of arrangements include bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs), regional trade pacts, currency and monetary arrangements, and political and security arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9560/
Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues
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Mongolia: Political and Economic Status
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Serbia: Current Issues and U.S. Policy
Serbia faces an important crossroads in its development. It is seeking to integrate into the European Union (EU), but its progress has been hindered by a failure to arrest four remaining indicted war criminals and by tensions with the United States and the EU over the independence of Serbia's Kosovo province. The United States, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and most other EU countries have recognized Kosovo's independence. Serbian leaders condemned said recognition and have withdrawn Serbia's ambassadors from the United States and other countries recognizing Kosovo's independence. The second session of the 110th Congress may consider legislation on Serbia, including conditions on aid to Serbia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10694/
Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview
China is a major source of U.S. imports of consumer products (such as toys) and an increasingly important supplier of various food products. Reports of unsafe seafood, pet food, toys, tires, and other products imported from China over the past year or so have raised concern in the United States over the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products. This report provides an overview of this issue and implications for U.S.-China trade relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10711/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
This report discusses the relationship between Iraq and Iran in the post-Saddam Hussein era, with particular focus on what Iran's intentions and/or long-term goals may be for increasing its influence in Iraq. The report explores the various strategies that Iran has used to spread its influence throughout Iraq's military and political spheres. The report also addresses the United States' concern over the Iran-Iraq relationship, especially as it concerns armed Shiite factions and U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26330/
Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments
The United States military has been building up forces on the U.S. territory of Guam to increase deterrence and power projection for possible responses to crises and disasters, counter-terrorism, and contingencies in support of South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, or elsewhere in Asia. But the defense buildup on Guam is moderate. China has concerns about the defense buildup. Guam's role has increased with plans to withdraw some U.S. forces from Japan and South Korea. This report describes in brief detail the various cooperative efforts, including financial efforts, undertaken by the U.S. and the above nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26333/
U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany, and Japan Compared
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United States-Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations: Background and Political Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9675/
U.S. Public Diplomacy: Background on the 9/11 Commission Recommendations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9978/
The Strategic Defense Initiative: Program Facts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9591/
The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications
This report is designed to assist Members of the 111th Congress as they consider the costs and benefits of the U.S.-South Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA). It examines the provisions of the KORUS FTA in the context of the overall U.S.-South Korean economic relationship, U.S. objectives, and South Korean objectives. The report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26270/
North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis
This report discusses the current political and economic state of North Korea, especially in regards to cooperative international efforts to dismantle North Korea's nuclear program and its trading relationships with China and Russia, especially. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26219/
Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy
Pakistan - a key U.S. ally in global efforts to combat Islamist militancy - is in urgent need of an estimated $4 billion in capital to avoid defaulting on its sovereign debt. The elected government of President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani is seeking short-term financial assistance from a number of sources, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), China, and an informal group of nations (including the United States) known as the "Friends of Pakistan." The current crisis has placed some strain on U.S.-Pakistan relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10819/
U.S. Public Diplomacy: Background on the 9/11 Commission Recommendations
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U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany, and Japan Compared
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The Strategic Defense Initiative: Program Facts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9601/
Israeli-Palestinian Agreement
On August 27, 1993, Israel and the Palestinians announced that Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) official Mahmoud Abbas (also known as Abu Mazen) had initialed a landmark agreement on August 19 in Oslo, Norway on a Declaration of Principles on interim self-government for the West Bank and Gaza Strip. On September 9, PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin exchanged letters unprecedented mutual recognition. On September 10, President Clinton welcomed the agreement, thanked Congress for its support, and announced that the United States would resume its dialog with the PLO. The Declaration was signed at the White House on September 13. This report provides summaries of the Declaration and the letters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26032/
El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations
This report discusses the state of the El Salvadoran government and recently elected President Mauricio Funes. This report also discusses the relationship between El Salvador and the United States, notably U.S. efforts to restore democracy and initiate economic reform in El Salvador. This report also briefly addresses the effects of the current financial crisis on El Salvador's economy, poverty levels, and crime rates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26319/
United States-Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations: Background and Political Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9684/