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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: September 12, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report focuses on the United States' relationship with Iran and how the Obama Administration is handling prior administrations' economic sanctions against Iran. The Obama Administration's policy approach toward Iran has contrasted with the Bush Administration's by attempting to couple the imposition of sanctions to an active and direct U.S. effort to negotiate with Iran on the nuclear issue. That approach was not initially altered because of the Iranian dispute over its June 12, 2009, elections. However, with subsequent negotiations yielding no firm Iranian agreement to compromise, since early 2010 the Administration has focused on achieving the imposition of additional U.N., U.S., and allied country sanctions whose cumulative effect would be to compel it to accept a nuclear bargain.
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Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

Date: February 10, 2012
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé, Dmitriy Medvedev, both of which have steered Russia away from progress toward democratization. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States.
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Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

Date: August 29, 2011
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses Pakistan's nuclear proliferation and security issues. It discusses the steps that could enable Pakistan to undertake both quantitative and qualitative improvements to its nuclear arsenal. Whether and to what extent Pakistan's current expansion of its nuclear weapons-related facilities is a response to the 2008 U.S.-India nuclear cooperation agreement is unclear.
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Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

Date: July 20, 2011
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses Pakistan's nuclear proliferation and security issues. It discusses the steps that could enable Pakistan to undertake both quantitative and qualitative improvements to its nuclear arsenal. Whether and to what extent Pakistan's current expansion of its nuclear weapons-related facilities is a response to the 2008 U.S.-India nuclear cooperation agreement is unclear.
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Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

Date: August 8, 2011
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses Pakistan's nuclear proliferation and security issues. It discusses the steps that could enable Pakistan to undertake both quantitative and qualitative improvements to its nuclear arsenal. Whether and to what extent Pakistan's current expansion of its nuclear weapons-related facilities is a response to the 2008 U.S.-India nuclear cooperation agreement is unclear.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

Date: August 26, 2011
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report focuses on the implications that certain elements of China's military modernization may have for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The issue for Congress addressed in this report is: How should China's military modernization be factored into decisions about U.S. Navy programs? Congress's decisions on this issue could significantly affect future U.S. Navy capabilities, U.S. Navy funding requirements, and the U.S. defense industrial base, including the shipbuilding industry.
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U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress

U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress

Date: December 15, 2011
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.
Description: India, which has not signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and does not have International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on all of its nuclear material, exploded a “peaceful” nuclear device in 1974, convincing the world of the need for greater restrictions on nuclear trade. The United States created the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) as a direct response to India's test, halted nuclear exports to India a few years later, and worked to convince other states to do the same. India tested nuclear weapons again in 1998. However, President Bush announced July 18, 2005, he would “work to achieve full civil nuclear energy cooperation with India” and would “also seek agreement from Congress to adjust U.S. laws and policies,” in the context of a broader partnership with India. The Obama Administration has continued with the Bush Administration's policy regarding civil nuclear cooperation with India. According to a November 8, 2010, White House fact sheet, the United States “intends to support India's full membership” in the NSG, as well as other multilateral export control regimes.
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China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

Date: March 23, 2012
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report covers the question of how the United States should respond to China's military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, has emerged as a key issue in U.S. defense planning. The question is of particular importance to the U.S. Navy, because many U.S. military programs for countering improved Chinese military forces would fall within the Navy's budget. Potential oversight issues for Congress include the following: whether the U.S. Navy in coming years will be large enough to adequately counter improved Chinese maritime anti-access forces while also adequately performing other missions of interest to U.S. policymakers around the world; the Navy's ability to counter Chinese ASBMs and submarines; and whether the Navy, in response to China's maritime anti-access capabilities, should shift over time to a more distributed fleet architecture.
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Egypt: Transition under Military Rule

Egypt: Transition under Military Rule

Date: June 21, 2012
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the transition underway after the resignation of Egyption president, Hosni Mubarak, and the effect on U.S.-Egyptian relations. It analyzes several issues for Congress including Egyptian-Israeli relations and U.S. foreign aid to Egypt.
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The Palestinians: Background and U.S. Relations

The Palestinians: Background and U.S. Relations

Date: August 30, 2011
Creator: Zanotti, Jim
Description: This report provides an overview of current issues in U.S.-Palestinian relations. It also contains an overview of Palestinian society and politics and descriptions of key Palestinian individuals and groups—chiefly the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Palestinian Authority (PA), Fatah, Hamas, and the Palestinian refugee population.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department