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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 2431 - 2454 of 4,103
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Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests

Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues.
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Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Options

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Options

Date: August 25, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses issues for Congress regarding foreign policy toward Iran. According to the Administration’s “National Security Strategy” document released on March 16, 2006, the United States “may face no greater challenge from a single country than Iran.”
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Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Options

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Options

Date: August 25, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran, much of which has centered on the nature of the current regime. Some experts believe that Iran, a country of almost 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran’s regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region. President Bush, in his January 29, 2002, State of the Union message, labeled Iran part of an “axis of evil” along with Iraq and North Korea.
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Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Date: August 25, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: According to an Administration national security strategy document released on March 16, 2006, the United States "may face no greater challenge from a single country than Iran." The Bush Administration announced May 31, 2006, that it would negotiate with Iran in concert with U.S. allies. If diplomacy and sanctions do not succeed, some advocate military action against Iran's nuclear infrastructure rather than acquiescence to a nuclear-armed Iran. U.S. concerns regarding Iran include Iran's nuclear program, Iran's influence on Iraq by way of providing arms and other material assistance to Shiite Islamist militias, and Iran's human rights practices, which include strict limits on free expression and repression of ethnic and religious minorities.
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Legal Developments in International Civil Aviation

Legal Developments in International Civil Aviation

Date: August 25, 2006
Creator: Tatelman, Todd B
Description: This report provides background on U.S. civil aviation agreements, updates the current status of U.S. “Open Skies” negotiations with the EU, and addresses the status of the legal debate concerning both the foreign ownership and control rules and the cabotage laws.
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Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
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Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Afghanistan's political transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005, but since then insurgent threats to Afghanistan's government have escalated to the point that some experts are questioning the future of U.S. stabilization efforts. Afghan citizens are enjoying new personal freedoms that were forbidden under the Taliban. Women are participating in economic and political life. U.S. stabilization measures focus on strengthening the central government and its security forces and on promoting reconstructing while combating the renewed insurgent challenge.
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Cuba After Fidel Castro: U.S. Policy Implications and Approaches

Cuba After Fidel Castro: U.S. Policy Implications and Approaches

Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P
Description: In the new context of Fidel’s transfer of power, there are two broad policy approaches to contend with political change in Cuba: a stay-the-course or status-quo approach that would maintain the U.S. dual-track policy of isolating the Cuban government while providing support to the Cuban people; and an approach aimed at influencing the Cuban government and Cuban society through increased contact and engagement.
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Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: None
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The Persian Gulf States: Issues for U.S. Policy, 2006

The Persian Gulf States: Issues for U.S. Policy, 2006

Date: August 21, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The U.S.-led war to overthrow Saddam Hussein virtually ended Iraq's ability to militarily threaten the region, but it has produced new and unanticipated security challenges for the Persian Gulf states (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates). The Gulf states, which are all led by Sunni Muslim regimes, fear that Shiite Iran is unchecked now that Iraq is strategically weak. Most Gulf states, particularly Saudi Arabia, have provided only halting support to the fledgling government in Baghdad and revived the focus on U.S.-Gulf defense cooperation as existed in the 1990s. The Bush Administration advocates more rapid and sweeping political and economic liberalization as key to long-term Gulf stability and to reducing support in the Gulf states for terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda.
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The Persian Gulf States: Issues for U.S. Policy, 2006

The Persian Gulf States: Issues for U.S. Policy, 2006

Date: August 21, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
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The Persian Gulf States: Issues for U.S. Policy, 2006

The Persian Gulf States: Issues for U.S. Policy, 2006

Date: August 21, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
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Sanchez-Llamas v. Oregon:

Sanchez-Llamas v. Oregon:

Date: August 14, 2006
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Vieux, Anthony
Description: None
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U.S. Conventional Forces and Nuclear Deterrence: A China Case Study

U.S. Conventional Forces and Nuclear Deterrence: A China Case Study

Date: August 11, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher; Kan, Shirley A & Woolf, Amy F
Description: None
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Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy?

Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy?

Date: August 10, 2006
Creator: Elwell, Craig K; Labonte, Marc & Morrison, Wayne M
Description: This report examines the implications (both challenges and opportunities) for the U.S. economy from China’s rapid economic growth and its emergence as a major economic power. It also describes congressional approaches for dealing with various Chinese economic policies deemed damaging to various U.S. economic sectors.
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Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

Date: August 8, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: Cuba has remained a hard-line communist state under Fidel Castro for more than 47 years, but Fidel's July 31, 2006, announcement that he was ceding political power to his brother Raúl "for several weeks" in order to recover from surgery could be the beginning of a political transition. Since the early 1960s, U.S. policy toward Cuba has consisted largely of isolating the island nation through comprehensive economic sanctions, which have been significantly tightened by the Bush Administration. Another component of U.S. policy consists of support measures for the Cuban people. There are several schools of thought on how to achieve the objective of bringing democracy and respect for human rights to Cuba: some advocate maximum pressure on Cuba until reforms are enacted; others argue for lifting some U.S. sanctions judged to be hurting the Cuban people; and still others call for a swift normalization of U.S.-Cuban relations.
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Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

Date: August 8, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P
Description: This report, which will be updated regularly, examines issues in U.S.-Cuban relations and tracks legislative initiatives on Cuba in the 109th Congress. The 109th Congress will likely continue an active interest in Cuba concerning human rights, debate over economic sanctions (especially on travel), food and agricultural exports to Cuba, terrorism issues, Radio and TV Marti, bilateral anti-drug cooperation, and migration issues.
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Japan-U.S. Relations

Japan-U.S. Relations

Date: August 7, 2006
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma; Manyin, Mark E. & Cooper, William H.
Description: The post-World War II U.S.-Japan alliance has long been an anchor of the U.S. security role in East Asia. The alliance facilitates, for the U.S., the forward deployment of U.S. military forces in the Asia-Pacific, and provides, for Japan, maneuvering room in dealing with its neighbors, particularly China and North Korea. This report outlines and explains in detail several aspects of the developing U.S.-Japan relationship. Most of said developing relationship has been viewed warily by South Korea and China. Japan is one of the United States' most important economic partners. It is the United States' largest export market outside of North America and second-largest source of imports. This report also describes in detail the economic relationship between the U.S. and Japan.
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Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

Date: August 7, 2006
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma; Manyin, Mark E & Cooper, William H
Description: This report discusses the Japan - U.S. relations. The alliance, with its access to bases in Japan, where about 53,000 U.S. troops are stationed, facilitates the forward deployment of U.S. military forces in the Asia-Pacific, thereby undergirding U.S. national security strategy.
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Kosovo and U.S. Policy

Kosovo and U.S. Policy

Date: August 7, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven & Kim, Julie
Description: In 1998 and 1999, the United States and its NATO allies attempted to put an end to escalating violence between ethnic Albanian guerrilas and Yugoslav/Serb forces in Yugoslavia's Kosovo province. These efforts culminated in a 78-day NATO bombing campaign (Operation Allied Force) against Serbia from March until June 1999, when then-Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic agreed to withdraw his forces from the province. Almost all ethnic Albanians want independence for Kosovo; Serbs say it should remain within Serbia. In mid-2005, the U.N. launched a comprehensive review of the Kosovo standards. On the basis of the review, the U.N. Security Council endorsed the start of status negotiations for Kosovo. In 2005, U.S. officials announced a "new stage" in Kosovo policy that aimed to accelerate resolution of the conflict and enhance the Balkan region's integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions.
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Kosovo and U.S. Policy

Kosovo and U.S. Policy

Date: August 7, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven & Kim, Julie
Description: None
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Kosovo and U.S. Policy

Kosovo and U.S. Policy

Date: August 7, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven & Kim, Julie
Description: None
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Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: August 4, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: After instability during the late 1990s, Bahrain undertook substantial political reforms, but the Shiite majority continues to simmer over the Sunni-led government's perceived manipulation of laws and regulations to maintain its grip on power. Bahrain's stability has long been a key U.S. interest; it has hosted U.S. naval headquarters for the Gulf for nearly 60 years. In September 2004, the United States and Bahrain signed a free trade agreement (FTA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department