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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Brazil-U.S. Relations

Brazil-U.S. Relations

Date: February 9, 2011
Creator: Meyer, Peter J.
Description: This report analyzes Brazil's political, economic, and social conditions, and discusses how those conditions affect its role in the region and its relationship with the United States.
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Brazil-U.S. Relations

Brazil-U.S. Relations

Date: June 3, 2009
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando & Meyer, Peter J.
Description: This report analyzes Brazil's political, economic, and social conditions, and how those conditions affect its role in the region and its relationship with the United States.
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Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

Date: March 22, 2006
Creator: Kim, Julie
Description: From late 2004 through early 2005, a combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro- Atlantic integration processes prompted a spate of transfers of indicted persons to the tribunal. Full cooperation with ICTY is a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union (EU) and NATO. As of March 2006, six persons indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) remained at large, including wartime Bosnian Serb leaders Radovan Karadzic and Gen. Ratko Mladic.
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Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

Date: June 16, 2006
Creator: Kim, Julie
Description: In early May 2006, assessments of insufficient Serbian cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) led the European Union (EU) to suspend association talks with Serbia. Later that month, the U.S. Secretary of State withheld certification of full Serbian cooperation with ICTY, leading to a partial suspension of U.S. bilateral assistance to Serbia. From late 2004 through early 2005, a combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro-Atlantic integration processes prompted a spate of transfers of indicted persons to the tribunal. Full cooperation with ICTY is a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union and NATO.
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Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues: 2005 Update

Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues: 2005 Update

Date: March 28, 2005
Creator: Kim, Julie
Description: A combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro-Atlantic integration processes has prompted a spate of transfers of persons indicted for war crimes to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague in late 2004-early 2005. Full cooperation with The Hague tribunal has been established as a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union (EU) and NATO. This report is updated as the number of individuals indicted for war crimes have been transferred to The Hague from Serbia, Kosovo, and Bosnia.
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China-U.S. Trade Issues

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Date: July 17, 2013
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: Report that discusses the U.S.-China economic relationship and China's rapid expansion as a global economic market, both with respect to the current global economic crisis. It also examines major U.S.-China trade issues and related legislation.
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China's Changing Conditions

China's Changing Conditions

Date: December 11, 1996
Creator: Sutter, Robert G
Description: Congressional interest in the leadership change and economic transformation underway in China has grown substantially over the past few years. Leading congressional concerns focus on how economic conditions in China pose opportunities for U.S. enterprise and how the evolution of conditions in China fosters U.S. security, economic, and political interests. Congressional concern with China grew in 1995 and 1996 as a result of reports of the serious decline in the health of senior Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. Present conditions in China include; A vibrant but sometimes overheated economy, A less divided central political leadership.
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China's Changing Conditions: Possible Implications for US Interests

China's Changing Conditions: Possible Implications for US Interests

Date: June 22, 1998
Creator: Sutter, Robert G
Description: This report discusses possible outcomes and implications for U.S. interests vary. For example, increasingly effective political administration and reform with continued successful economic modernization would be generally compatible with U.S. interests in greater economic opportunity, foreign policy cooperation, and political liberalization in China. Alternatively, Chinese administration, economic vitality, and internal cohesion could degenerate, limiting U.S. economic opportunities, challenging U.S. interests in stability in East Asia, but also diminishing potential threats from a strong China. Finally, China could develop formidable economic power while retaining authoritarian political control, with China emerging as a world power less interested in accommodating U.S. interests than in opposing them.
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China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues

China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues

Date: March 17, 2006
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report explores various aspects of the Chinese economy, including specific policies that some Members of Congress consider a form of currency manipulation, the U.S.-China economic relationship, and the state of the Chinese economy with respect to the current global economic crisis.
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China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Date: March 30, 2012
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. China has taken some steps to mollify U.S. concerns about its role in weapons proliferation. Skeptics question whether China's cooperation in weapons nonproliferation has warranted President Bush's pursuit of stronger bilateral ties. This report discusses the national security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s.
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China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Date: May 26, 2011
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: This CRS Report, updated as warranted, discusses the security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response since the mid- 1990s. China has taken some steps to mollify U.S. and other foreign concerns about its role in weapons proliferation. Nonetheless, supplies from China have aggravated trends that result in ambiguous technical aid, more indigenous capabilities, longer-range missiles, and secondary (retransferred) proliferation. According to unclassified intelligence reports submitted as required to Congress, China has been a "key supplier" of technology, particularly PRC entities providing nuclear and missile-related technology to Pakistan and missile-related technology to Iran.
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China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Date: July 17, 2007
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. China has taken some steps to mollify U.S. concerns about its role in weapons proliferation. Skeptics question whether China's cooperation in weapons nonproliferation has warranted President Bush's pursuit of stronger bilateral ties. This report discusses the national security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s.
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China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities - Background and Issues for Congress

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities - Background and Issues for Congress

Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report focuses on the implications that certain elements of China’s military modernization may have for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The issue for Congress addressed in this report is: How should China’s military modernization be factored into decisions about U.S. Navy programs? Congress’s decisions on this issue could significantly affect future U.S. Navy capabilities, U.S. Navy funding requirements, and the U.S. defense industrial base, including the shipbuilding industry.
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China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities - Background and Issues for Congress

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities - Background and Issues for Congress

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report focuses on the implications that certain elements of China’s military modernization may have for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The issue for Congress addressed in this report is: How should China’s military modernization be factored into decisions about U.S. Navy programs? Congress’s decisions on this issue could significantly affect future U.S. Navy capabilities, U.S. Navy funding requirements, and the U.S. defense industrial base, including the shipbuilding industry.
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China's Steel Industry and Its Impact on the United States: Issues for Congress

China's Steel Industry and Its Impact on the United States: Issues for Congress

Date: September 21, 2010
Creator: Tang, Rachel
Description: This report provides an overview of China's steel industry and discusses the issues and implications with regard to the U.S. steel sector.
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China's Economic Conditions

China's Economic Conditions

Date: June 26, 2012
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: This report looks at how economic reforms and trade liberalization that began in 1979 has lead to China blossoming into one of the world's fastest growing economies. The report surveys the rise of China's economy; describes major economic challenges facing China; and discusses the challenges, opportunities, and implications of China's economic rise for the United States.
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China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States

China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States

Date: September 5, 2013
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: This report provides background on China's economic rise; describes its current economic structure; identifies the challenges China faces to maintain economic growth; and discusses the challenges, opportunities, and implications of China's economic rise for the United States.
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China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

Date: March 23, 2012
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The question of how the United States should respond to China's military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, has emerged as a key issue in U.S. defense planning. The question is of particular importance to the U.S. Navy, because many U.S. military programs for countering improved Chinese military forces would fall within the Navy's budget. Potential oversight issues for Congress include the following: whether the U.S. Navy in coming years will be large enough to adequately counter improved Chinese maritime anti-access forces while also adequately performing other missions of interest to U.S. policymakers around the world; the Navy's ability to counter Chinese ASBMs and submarines; and whether the Navy, in response to China's maritime anti-access capabilities, should shift over time to a more distributed fleet architecture.
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China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

Date: January 20, 2011
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report focuses on the implications that certain elements of China's military modernization may have for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The issue for Congress addressed in this report is: How should China's military modernization be factored into decisions about U.S. Navy programs? Congress's decisions on this issue could significantly affect future U.S. Navy capabilities, U.S. Navy funding requirements, and the U.S. defense industrial base, including the shipbuilding industry.
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China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

Date: February 3, 2011
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report focuses on the implications that certain elements of China's military modernization may have for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The issue for Congress addressed in this report is: How should China's military modernization be factored into decisions about U.S. Navy programs? Congress's decisions on this issue could significantly affect future U.S. Navy capabilities, U.S. Navy funding requirements, and the U.S. defense industrial base, including the shipbuilding industry.
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China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

Date: August 26, 2011
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report focuses on the implications that certain elements of China's military modernization may have for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The issue for Congress addressed in this report is: How should China's military modernization be factored into decisions about U.S. Navy programs? Congress's decisions on this issue could significantly affect future U.S. Navy capabilities, U.S. Navy funding requirements, and the U.S. defense industrial base, including the shipbuilding industry.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress

Date: March 23, 2012
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report covers the question of how the United States should respond to China's military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, has emerged as a key issue in U.S. defense planning. The question is of particular importance to the U.S. Navy, because many U.S. military programs for countering improved Chinese military forces would fall within the Navy's budget. Potential oversight issues for Congress include the following: whether the U.S. Navy in coming years will be large enough to adequately counter improved Chinese maritime anti-access forces while also adequately performing other missions of interest to U.S. policymakers around the world; the Navy's ability to counter Chinese ASBMs and submarines; and whether the Navy, in response to China's maritime anti-access capabilities, should shift over time to a more distributed fleet architecture.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China-U.S. Trade

China-U.S. Trade

Date: November 19, 1981
Creator: Holliday, George D & Hardt, John P
Description: The improved political relationship between the United States and the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), initiated by the Nixon Administration and furthered by the Carter Administration's decision to establish diplomatic relations, has spurred a rapid increase in Sino-U.S. trade. While still small relative to overall U.S. foreign trade, the volume of trade represents an abrupt shift from the no-trade policy that had been pursued since 1950. Despite the rapid expansion, outstanding issues remain as serious barriers to normalized trade. Resolution of those issues may require concession or accommodations by the Chinese leadership as well as action by both the U.S. Congress and the Executive Branch. However, the development of a new approach to foreign economic relations by the post-Mao Chinese leadership and the establishment of diplomatic relations have laid the ground work for a further expansion of commercial relations.
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China-U.S. Trade Issues

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Date: July 12, 2006
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past several years. China is now the third largest U.S. trading partner, its second largest source of imports, and its fourth largest export market. However, U.S.-China commercial ties have been strained by a number of issues, including a surging U.S. trade deficit with China, China's refusal to float its currency, and failure to fully comply with its World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments, especially its failure to provide protection for U.S. intellectual property rights (IPR). This report explores these issues in detail, especially concerning the lack of protection for U.S. IPR.
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