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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview

U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview

Date: unknown
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: Two major U.S. trade remedies are antidumping (AD) law, which combats the sale of imported products at less than their fair market value, and countervailing duty (CVD) law, which aims to offset foreign government subsidization of imported goods. This report discusses these two law's impact on U.S. foreign relations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Relations: Six Key Questions in the Continuing Policy Debate

Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Relations: Six Key Questions in the Continuing Policy Debate

Date: December 10, 1981
Creator: Bite, Vita & Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division
Description: This report provides background information and a general overview of the role of human rights in U.S. foreign policy. It includes a discussion of some traditional arguments about how international human rights concerns might be integrated with other foreign policy factors. It also includes a discussion of the definition of human rights, of U.S. international obligations to promote human rights, and the apparatus and procedures available to the U.S. Government for implementing human rights policy. Particular attention is paid to congressional actions, not only in debating and holding hearings on human rights issues, but especially in enacting laws to assure that U.S. foreign policy formulation and practice include consideration of the status of human rights in other countries.
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Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy

Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy

Date: November 24, 1982
Creator: Bite, Vita
Description: Following a review of such broad policy issues, this report treats specific human rights issues of current interest. Discussions of controversy over the selection of an Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and of human rights policy at the international financial institutions are followed by reviews of U.S. human rights policy toward Argentina, El Salvador, Nicaragua, South Africa, and the Soviet Union.
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Turkey: Situation Update

Turkey: Situation Update

Date: September 12, 1997
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Description: This report briefly discusses recent political, economic, and security issues in Turkey, especially relating to Turkey's relationship with Greece, the European Union, and the United States.
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Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Date: June 5, 1998
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E. & Shuey, Robert D.
Description: This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions and the events that might necessitate their use, criteria to consider when determining if sanctions are appropriate, approaches that might be effective, and aspects of the use of sanctions that are sometimes overlooked or not considered fully. The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China: Pending Legislation in the 105th Congress

China: Pending Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: June 19, 1998
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: The 105 Congress has been active on issues involving China. This report, which will be updated as developments occur, tracks pending human rights legislation, including bills concerning: prison conditions and prison labor exports; coercive abortion practices; China’s policies toward religion; and more general human rights issues.
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Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress

Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress

Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: he United States Constitution divides foreign policy powers between the President and the Congress so that both share in the making of foreign policy. The executive and legislative branches each play important roles that are different but that often overlap. Both branches have continuing opportunities to initiate and change foreign policy, and the interaction between them continues indefinitely throughout the life of a policy. This report reviews and illustrates 12 basic ways that the United States can make foreign policy.
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Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program

Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program

Date: November 29, 2000
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the “oil-for-food” program which represents a longstanding U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining pressure on the Iraqi government to comply with all relevant U.N. Security Council resolutions.
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Iraq-Kuwait: United Nations Security Council Resolutions Texts – 1992-2002

Iraq-Kuwait: United Nations Security Council Resolutions Texts – 1992-2002

Date: January 28, 2003
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: This report lists these 39 resolutions, provides the Security Council vote on each, and sets out the complete text of each resolution. In addition, a number of relevant U.N. documents are included. The texts of the 24 resolutions adopted in 1990 and 1991 may be found in two CRS reports, 90-513 and 91-395.
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Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: April 18, 2003
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: This report discusses U.S. arms sales to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. The Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), P.L. 96-8, has governed U.S. arms sales to Taiwan since 1979, when the United States recognized the People’s Republic of China (PRC) instead of the ROC. There are two other relevant elements of the “one China” policy: the August 17, 1982 U.S.-PRC Joint Communique and the “Six Assurances” made to Taiwan.
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Iraq: Turkey, the Deployment of U.S. Forces, and Related Issues

Iraq: Turkey, the Deployment of U.S. Forces, and Related Issues

Date: May 2, 2003
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Description: On March 1, 2003, the Turkish parliament, in a close vote, failed to pass a resolution authorizing the United States to deploy troops to Turkish territory to open a northern front in a war against Iraq. The vote surprised the U.S. government and its Turkish counterpart. Both governments may have greatly overestimated their understanding of the Turkish political situation that contributed to the defeat of the resolution. This report focuses on that political scene, Turkish concerns about an Iraq conflict, the tentative, but unfulfilled, bargain struck between the U.S. and Turkish governments to authorize the U.S. deployment - to the extent that it is known, the final arrangements for U.S. access to Turkish airspace, and attendant issues. This report also reviews the implications of parliament’s actions for the bilateral U.S.- Turkish relationship, regional relations, Turkey’s domestic politics, its economy, and broader issues.
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House Vacancies: Proposed Constitutional Amendments for Filling Them Due to National Emergencies

House Vacancies: Proposed Constitutional Amendments for Filling Them Due to National Emergencies

Date: August 12, 2003
Creator: Richardson, Sula P
Description: This report discusses the proposed constitutional amendments for filling House vacancies if a significant number ofMembers were unable to serve due to a national emergency in case of nuclear, biological, chemical attack.
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Humanitarian Crisis in Haiti: 2004

Humanitarian Crisis in Haiti: 2004

Date: March 5, 2004
Creator: Margesson, Rhoda
Description: Since armed rebels seized control of Haiti’s fourth largest city, Gonaives, on February 5, 2004, and protests calling for President Aristide’s resignation culminated in his departure on February 29, there has been increasing concern about a looming humanitarian crisis in Haiti. With events on the ground constantly shifting and an increasing lack of security, assessments of the humanitarian situation remain fluid and subject to change. This report covers recent developments and the humanitarian response to the crisis by the United States and other international actors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NATO and the European Union

NATO and the European Union

Date: April 6, 2004
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.
Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress

The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress

Date: May 20, 2004
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: This report discusses the key role Congress played in formulating an aid program for the former Soviet Union in 1992. Focusing on tensions in the political and legislative system, it delineates congressional achievements — chief of which was the Freedom Support Act. The legislation that was ultimately produced became the basis on which future debate would be conducted regarding how the United States could continue to influence events in the former Soviet Union and assist its transition to an open market economy and democratic institutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues

Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues

Date: May 28, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K. & Serafino, Nina M.
Description: This report summarizes what is currently known publicly about companies that provide personnel for security missions in Iraq and some sources of controversy surrounding them. The report also summarizes pertinent legislative proposals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 109th Congress

Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 109th Congress

Date: October 26, 2004
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry
Description: This report discusses the United States and Mexico relations and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The major issues discussed by Congress are trade, migration/border security, drug trafficking, and political issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

Date: November 29, 2004
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the political state of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which under new leadership upon the November 2, 2004 death of its president, Shaykh Zayid bin Sultan al-Nuhayyan, has undergone a smooth transition, but it remains weak militarily and surrounded by several powerful and ambitious neighbors. Political reform has been minimal, but its relatively open economy and borders, particularly in the emirate of Dubai, have caused problems in proliferation, terrorism, and human trafficking. The United States has announced it will open negotiations with UAE on a free trade agreement (FTA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2005: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs

Appropriations for FY2005: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs

Date: November 30, 2004
Creator: Nowels, Larry
Description: This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year, related to foreign operations, export financing and other programs. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Foreign Operations. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy

Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy

Date: December 17, 2004
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: This report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S. policy toward Moldova.
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European Union Enlargement

European Union Enlargement

Date: December 22, 2004
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: On May 1, 2004, 10 states joined the European Union (EU), enlarging the Union to 25 members. The EU views the enlargement process as an historic opportunity to promote stability in Europe and further the integration of the continent by peaceful means. In addition to the 10 new members (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia), three other states — Bulgaria, Romania, and Croatia — hope to accede to the EU by 2007. Turkey is also a candidate and is expected to begin accession negotiations in 2005. Macedonia has also applied for EU membership.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 108th Congress

Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 108th Congress

Date: December 22, 2004
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry
Description: This report discusses the United States and Mexico relations and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The major issues discussed by Congress are trade, migration/border security, drug trafficking, and political issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NATO and the European Union

NATO and the European Union

Date: January 4, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.
Description: None
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Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns

Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns

Date: January 19, 2005
Creator: Taft-Morales, Maureen
Description: This report discusses the social and political development in Haiti and U.S. its relations with United States. Following elections that were widely heralded as the first free and fair elections in Haiti's then-186-year history, Jean-Bertrand Aristide first became Haitian President in February 1991.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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