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 Country: Iraq
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, continues to be riven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting. The Administration is optimistic that the passage of key laws in 2008, including a law to govern provincial elections to be held in early 2009, will sustain recent reductions in violence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Date: July 8, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Obama Administration is facing a security environment in Iraq vastly improved over that which prevailed during 2005-2007, although still not completely peaceful or without potential to deteriorate significantly. Some U.S. officials believe that further U.S. military presence might be needed beyond the projected 2011 withdrawal date, and that political disputes among Iraqi factions could escalate and reignite civil conflict in the absence of a U.S. presence. This report discusses these issues in detail, as well as the factors that have contributed to the planned withdrawal of U.S. troops, including mounting casualties and financial costs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: May 14, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting all major Shiite Muslim political factions in Iraq, most of which have longstanding ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran, and their armed militias. The Administration notes growing involvement by Tehran in actively directing training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysis goes so far as to see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: September 17, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Shiite faction of paramount concern to the Administration is that of Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia has periodically battled U.S. and Iraqi government forces, although it is currently relatively quiescent.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: October 21, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S. forces present in Iraq. By supporting armed Shiite factions, Iran's influence in Iraq has at times hindered U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq, and has heightened the U.S. threat perception of Iran generally. However, Iran faces difficult choices in Iraq now that its protege Shiite factions, formerly united, are competing and often fighting each other.
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Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: July 25, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: June 16, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting and attempting to influence, in most cases against the United States, major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Administration asserts that Tehran is actively directing, training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysts see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: September 25, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department