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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2012
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Pivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration's "Rebalancing" Toward Asia

Pivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration's "Rebalancing" Toward Asia

Date: March 28, 2012
Creator: Manyin, Mark E.; Daggett, Stephen; Dolven, Ben; Lawrence, Susan V.; Martin, Michael F.; O'Rourke, Ronald et al.
Description: In the fall of 2011, the Obama Administration issued a series of announcements indicating that the United States would be expanding and intensifying its already significant role in the Asia-Pacific, particularly in the southern part of the region. Given that one purpose of the "pivot" or "rebalancing" toward the Asia-Pacific is to deepen U.S. credibility in the region at a time of fiscal constraint, Congress's oversight and appropriations roles, as well as its approval authority over free trade agreements, will help determine to what extent the Administration's plans are implemented and how various trade-offs are managed.
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Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: May 31, 2012
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report discusses the U.S. policy toward the Central Asia. It provides background information and most recent developments in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. U.S. objectives have included promoting free markets, democratization, human rights, energy development, and the forging of East-West and Central Asia-South Asia trade links.
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Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act

Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act

Date: September 12, 2012
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Description: This report describes the changes that were made by the FISA Amendments Act within the context of the government's authority to conduct surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes.
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Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress

Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress

Date: February 2, 2012
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.; Dale, Catherine & Towell, Pat
Description: Within the past two decades, prominent foreign policy organizations and foreign policy experts have perceived serious deficiencies in the authorities, organizations, and personnel used to conduct interagency missions that prevent the United States from exercising its power to full advantage. For the 112th Congress, proposals to address these problems may be of interest for their perceived potential not only to enhance performance, but also to save money by streamlining processes, encouraging interagency cooperation, and reducing duplication. These proposals also provide context for current and recent legislation, including the Interagency Personnel Rotation Act of 2011 (S. 1268 and H.R. 2314) and the Contingency Operations Oversight and Interagency Enhancement Act of 2011 (H.R. 3660), as well as the new Global Security Contingency Fund contained in the FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA, Section 1207, H.R. 1540, P.L. 112-81, signed into law December 31, 2011). The FY2012 NDAA requires the President to submit to Congress a “whole-of-government” implementation plan.
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Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance

Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance

Date: October 4, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: This report discusses the 112th Congress' measures to reduce the federal budget deficit and how this may influence congressional debate over the third-ranking U.S. aid recipient, Pakistan-a country vital to U.S. national security interests but that some say lacks accountability and even credibility.
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Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance

Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance

Date: April 10, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: The 112th Congress has been focused measures to reduce the federal budget deficit. This backdrop may influence congressional debate over the third-ranking U.S. aid recipient, Pakistan-a country vital to U.S. national security interests but that some say lacks accountability and even credibility.
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America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget

America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget

Date: March 20, 2012
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Description: The 112th Congress faces several budget and appropriations decisions that may affect implementation of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010. Signed on January 4, 2011, this law seeks to improve U.S. competitiveness and innovation by authorizing, among other things, increased federal support for research in the physical sciences and engineering; and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The specific debate about FY2013 funding for America COMPETES 2010 provisions will occur within the broader context of the national conversation about U.S. competitiveness.
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America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget

America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget

Date: October 9, 2012
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Description: This report discusses the 112th Congress' possible changes to the implementation of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010. Signed on January 4, 2011, this law seeks to improve U.S. competitiveness and innovation by authorizing, among other things, increased federal support for research in the physical sciences and engineering; and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The specific debate about FY2013 funding for America COMPETES 2010 provisions will occur within the broader context of the national conversation about U.S. competitiveness.
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America COMPETES Acts: FY2008-FY2013 Funding Tables

America COMPETES Acts: FY2008-FY2013 Funding Tables

Date: October 16, 2012
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Description: This report tracks historical federal funding associated with the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (COMEPETES) Reauthorization Act of 2010, which are set to expire in 2013.
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Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress

Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress

Date: January 23, 2012
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.; Dale, Catherine & Towell, Pat
Description: This report draws on over three dozen studies with recommendations to improve the current national security system. The studies surveyed include three prepared by the Project on National Security Reform, with comprehensive recommendations, four prepared or co-sponsored by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), and two by RAND in conjunction with the American Academy of Diplomats, as well as reports by the Council on Foreign Relations, the Defense Science Board, the National Defense University, and others. This report draws from these studies, as well as a few articles, for recommendations to improve strategy-making, planning, and budgeting; to improve institutional authorities, structures and arrangements; and, to create interagency personnel policies and mechanisms.
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In Brief: Clarifying the Concept of "Partnership" in National Security

In Brief: Clarifying the Concept of "Partnership" in National Security

Date: May 4, 2012
Creator: Dale, Catherine
Description: Over the last few years, the term "partnership" has spread like wildfire through official U.S. national security guidance documents and rhetoric. At the Department of Defense (DOD), which spearheaded the proliferation of the term, "partnership" has been used to refer to a broad array of civilian as well as military activities in support of national security.1 At other U.S. government agencies, and at the White House, the use of the term "partnership" has been echoed and applied even more broadly-not only in the national security arena, but also to all facets of U.S. relationships with foreign partners. "Partnership" is not new in either theory or practice. A lack of sufficient strategic direction regarding the use of the term could raise a series of potential concerns for Congress.
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Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis

Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis

Date: October 26, 2012
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: Report containing information regarding foreign direct investments, including the foreign acquisition of American firms.
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Timor-Leste: Political Dynamics, Development, and International Involvement

Timor-Leste: Political Dynamics, Development, and International Involvement

Date: July 3, 2012
Creator: Dolven, Ben; Margesson, Rhoda & Vaughn, Bruce
Description: This report covers the recent background of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, since its independence from Portugal in May 2002. It discusses the many serious challenges the country faces as it seeks to establish and deepen a stable democracy and develop its economy.
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Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Date: January 10, 2012
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate Cuba's communist government since the early 1960s. In January 2011, the Obama Administration announced policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances. In the first session of the 112th Congress, there were several attempts aimed at rolling back the Obama Administration's actions easing restrictions on travel and remittances. Several initiatives were also introduced that would further ease or lift such restrictions altogether. This report discusses the details of these policy changes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Venezuela: Issues for Congress

Venezuela: Issues for Congress

Date: August 30, 2012
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: This report discusses the current Congressional issues in relation to Venezuela, including background on the political situation and recent developments, the economic conditions, relevant U.S. policies, and the legislative initiatives in the 111th and 112th Congresses. The United States traditionally has had close relations with Venezuela, a major supplier of foreign oil, but there has been friction in relations under the government of populist President Hugo Chávez. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about human rights, Venezuela's military arms purchases, its relations with Cuba and Iran, and its efforts to export its brand of populism to other Latin American countries.
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U.S. Assistance Programs in China

U.S. Assistance Programs in China

Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Description: This report examines U.S. foreign assistance activities in the People's Republic of China (PRC), including U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) programming, foreign operations appropriations, policy history, and legislative background. International programs supported by U.S. departments and agencies other than the Department of State and USAID are not covered in this report.
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Nigeria: Elections and Issues for Congress

Nigeria: Elections and Issues for Congress

Date: January 19, 2012
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Description: This report discusses the political climate, development challenges and reform in Nigeria. The report also considers the social issues and security concerns of Nigeria. In addition, other issues are mentioned, as Congress provides oversight for over $600 million in U.S. foreign assistance programs to Nigeria.
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Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Date: April 19, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights. Relations among major political factions have worsened substantially since late 2011, threatening Iraq's stability and the perception of the achievements of the long U.S. intervention in Iraq. Sunni Arabs, always fearful that Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki would seek unchallenged power for Shiite factions allied with him, accuse him of an outright power grab as he seeks to purge the highest-ranking Sunni Arabs from government and to cripple attempts by Sunni-inhabited provinces to achieve greater autonomy.
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Horn of Africa Region: The Humanitarian Crisis and International Response

Horn of Africa Region: The Humanitarian Crisis and International Response

Date: January 6, 2012
Creator: Margesson, Rhoda; Dagne, Ted & Ploch, Lauren
Description: This report provides an overview of the current status of the crisis, summary background on the region, a framework for the international and humanitarian response, and an analysis of some of the operational challenges.
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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

Date: January 6, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Description: This report analyzes the FY2012 request and congressional action related to FY2012 State- Foreign Operations legislation. This report focuses on only the accounts funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, but provides appropriations figures for the entire international affairs (Function 150) budget in Appendix E.
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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2013 Budget and Appropriations

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2013 Budget and Appropriations

Date: July 23, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.; Lawson, Marian Leonardo & Tiersky, Alex L.
Description: This report analyzes the FY2013 request and congressional action related to FY2013 State-Foreign Operations legislation. The 112th Congress is considering FY2013 international affairs funding within the context of the Budget Control Act that established discretionary spending limits for FY2012-FY2021 and contains automatic budget reductions (sequestration) on discretionary spending to begin on January 2, 2013.
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U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress

U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress

Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: This CRS report, updated as warranted, discusses policy issues regarding military-to-military (mil-to-mil) contacts with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and provides a record of major contacts and crises since 1993.
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U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview

U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview

Date: April 23, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: Two major U.S. trade remedies are antidumping (AD) law, which combats the sale of imported products at less than their fair market value, and countervailing duty (CVD) law, which aims to offset foreign government subsidization of imported goods. This report discusses these two law's impact on U.S. foreign relations.
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U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress

U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress

Date: February 10, 2012
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: This CRS report, updated as warranted, discusses policy issues regarding military-to-military (mil-to-mil) contacts with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and provides a record of major contacts and crises since 1993. Issues for Congress include whether the Obama Administration has complied with legislation overseeing dealings with the PLA and pursued contacts with the PLA that advance a prioritized set of U.S. security interests, especially the operational safety of U.S. military personnel. Oversight legislation includes the Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY1990-FY1991 and National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY2000.
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