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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2011
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts

State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts

Date: February 8, 2011
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt & Resler, Tamara J.
Description: This report briefly discusses State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations legislation generally and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in Division F, “Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010,” of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010. For FY2011, State, Foreign Operations programs are currently being funded under a continuing resolution that funds these programs through March 4, 2011.
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Venezuela: Issues for Congress

Venezuela: Issues for Congress

Date: June 27, 2011
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: The United States traditionally has had close relations with Venezuela, a major supplier of foreign oil, but there has been friction in relations under the government of populist President Hugo Chávez. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about human rights, Venezuela's military arms purchases, its relations with Cuba and Iran, and its efforts to export its brand of populism to other Latin American countries. Declining cooperation on anti-drug and anti-terrorism efforts has also been a concern.
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Venezuela: Issues for Congress

Venezuela: Issues for Congress

Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: This report covers the issues Venezuela poses for Congress. It examines the Venezualian political situation, its economic conditions, the United States policy toward Venezuela, and the legislative initiatives of the 111th Congress regarding this foreign nation.
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Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Date: January 18, 2011
Creator: Mark P. Sullivan
Description: On January 14, 2011, the Obama Administration announced a series of policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. This report discusses the history of travel restrictions to Cuba, changes set to take place, and related legislative initiatives.
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Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Date: May 17, 2011
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate the communist government of Fidel Castro for much of the past 40 years. Under the Bush Administration, enforcement of U.S. restrictions on Cuba travel has increased, and restrictions on travel and on private remittances to Cuba have been tightened. Several legislative initiatives have been introduced in the 109th Congress that would ease restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. These bills would, among other things, lift overall restrictions on travel to Cuba, lift the overall embargo, and ease restrictions on exporting agricultural commodities to Cuba.
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Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Date: October 12, 2011
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: This report discusses details of policy changes regarding travel to Cuba, which have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate Cuba's communist government since the early 1960s. In January 2011, the Obama Administration announced policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances. In the first session of the 112th Congress, there were several attempts aimed at rolling back the Obama Administration's actions easing restrictions on travel and remittances. Several initiatives were also introduced that would further ease or lift such restrictions altogether.
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Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance

Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance

Date: July 28, 2011
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Kronstadt , K. Alan
Description: This report discusses U.S. aid to Pakistan including an overview of current developments, a discussion of aid rendered before and after 9/11, the objectives of requesting aid during FY2012, and various issues that Congress needs to consider relating to this topic.
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Gangs in Central America

Gangs in Central America

Date: January 3, 2011
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: This report describes the gang problem in Central America, discusses country and regional approaches to deal with the gangs, and analyzes U.S. policy with respect to gangs in Central America.
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Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy

Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy

Date: February 10, 2011
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Description: This report provides an overview of the U.S. foreign assistance program by answering frequently asked questions on the subject. It is intended to provide a broad view of foreign assistance over time.
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America Competes 2010: FY2012 Funding and FY2008-FY2011 Funding Summary

America Competes 2010: FY2012 Funding and FY2008-FY2011 Funding Summary

Date: July 8, 2011
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Description: This report discusses how funding affects the America COMPETES program, and subsequently U.S. interests in R&D in STEM disciplines.
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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

Date: July 22, 2011
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.; Lawson, Marian Leonardo & Resler, Tamara J.
Description: This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

Date: October 6, 2011
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Description: This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

Date: August 4, 2011
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Description: This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

Date: July 7, 2011
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.; Lawson, Marian Leonardo & Resler, Tamara J.
Description: This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Palestinian Initiatives for 2011 at the United Nations

Palestinian Initiatives for 2011 at the United Nations

Date: September 23, 2011
Creator: Zanotti, Jim & Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: This report provides information on the United Nations (U.N.) framework and process for options being discussed regarding possible Palestinian statehood, including overviews of the following topics: the U.N. and recognition of states, observer status in the United Nations, and the criteria and process for United Nations membership. The report also analyzes the prospects for avoiding U.N. action by reaching an Israel-PLO agreement to resume negotiations, as well as the possibility of a compromise U.N. resolution that could set forth parameters for future Israeli-Palestinian negotiations but stop short of addressing the question of Palestinian statehood beyond expressing aspirations.
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Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Date: August 24, 2011
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: This report discusses details of policy changes regarding travel to Cuba, which have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate Cuba's communist government since the early 1960s. In January 2011, the Obama Administration announced policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances. In the first session of the 112th Congress, there were several attempts aimed at rolling back the Obama Administration's actions easing restrictions on travel and remittances. Several initiatives were also introduced that would further ease or lift such restrictions altogether.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Date: May 13, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Much of the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran has centered on the nature of the current regime; some believe that Iran, a country of about 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran's regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region. President George W. Bush, in his January 29, 2002, State of the Union message, labeled Iran part of an "axis of evil" along with Iraq and North Korea. This report discusses how the Obama Administration differs from the Bush Administration regarding strategy in Iran relations. This report also discusses the current political state of Iran, including incidents of violence and unrest.
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Pakistan-U.S. Relations: A Summary

Pakistan-U.S. Relations: A Summary

Date: May 16, 2011
Creator: Kronstadt, Alan K.
Description: This report summarizes important recent developments in Pakistan and in Pakistan-U.S. relations. These include high-profile political assassinations earlier in 2011, the Raymond Davis affair involving a CIA operative accused of murder in the city of Lahore, and the May killing of Osama bin Laden in the military cantonment city of Abbottabad, among others. Obama Administration engagement with Pakistan has been seriously disrupted by recent events. A brief analysis of the current state of Pakistan-U.S. relations illuminates the main areas of contention and uncertainty. Vital U.S. interests related to links between Pakistan and indigenous American terrorism, Islamist militancy in Pakistan and Islamabad's policies toward the Afghan insurgency, Pakistan's relations with historic rival India, nuclear weapons proliferation and security, and the troubled status of Pakistan's domestic setting are reviewed. Ongoing human rights concerns are briefly summarized, and the report closes with discussion of U.S. foreign assistance to Pakistan.
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Nigeria: Elections and Issues for Congress

Nigeria: Elections and Issues for Congress

Date: May 17, 2011
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Description: This report discusses the political climate, development challenges and reform in Nigeria. The report also deliberates the social issues and security concerns of Nigeria. In addition, other issues are considered as Congress provides oversight for over $600 million in U.S. foreign assistance programs to Nigeria.
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Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations

Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations

Date: May 16, 2011
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Description: This report presents an overview of Qatar's history and recent economic and political developments. The report discusses U.S. relations with Qatar, U.S. military cooperation and foreign assistance, political reform and elections, as well as human rights and social issues.
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Nigeria: Elections and Issues for Congress

Nigeria: Elections and Issues for Congress

Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Description: This report discusses the political climate, development challenges and reform in Nigeria. The report also considers the social issues and security concerns of Nigeria. In addition, other issues are mentioned, as Congress provides oversight for over $600 million in U.S. foreign assistance programs to Nigeria.
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The Middle East: Selected Key Issues and Options for the 112th Congress

The Middle East: Selected Key Issues and Options for the 112th Congress

Date: January 3, 2011
Creator: Addis, Casey L.; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Katzman, Kenneth; Sharp, Jeremy M. & Zanotti, Jim
Description: This report provides an overview of key issues, relating to the Middle East including the war in Afghanistan, terrorism, foreign assistance, democracy promotion, a summary of past congressional action on these issues, and options for congressional consideration during the 112th Congress.
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The European Union: Questions and Answers

The European Union: Questions and Answers

Date: January 24, 2011
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the European Union (EU), an economic and political partnership between 27 sovereign member states. The report describes the formation of the EU, the three main institutions of the EU, and the EU's relationship with the United States.
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Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive

Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive

Date: July 26, 2011
Creator: Morelli, Vincent
Description: Attempts to resolve the Cyprus problem and reunify the island have undergone various levels of negotiation for over 45 years. Talks between Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders have thus far failed to reach a mutually agreed settlement leaving the country with a solution for unification far from being achieved and raising the specter of a possible permanent separation. This report provides a brief overview of the early history of the negotiations, a more detailed review of the negotiations since 2008, and a description of some of the issues involved in the talks. A side issue involving trade between the European Union and Turkish Cyprus is also addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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