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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts
This report briefly discusses State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations legislation generally and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in Division F, “Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010,” of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010. For FY2011, State, Foreign Operations programs are currently being funded under a continuing resolution that funds these programs through March 4, 2011. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103055/
State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts
Report that briefly discusses the legislation generally and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in Division I, "Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012," of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012 (P.L. 112-74). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227640/
Pivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration's "Rebalancing" Toward Asia
In the fall of 2011, the Obama Administration issued a series of announcements indicating that the United States would be expanding and intensifying its already significant role in the Asia-Pacific, particularly in the southern part of the region. Given that one purpose of the "pivot" or "rebalancing" toward the Asia-Pacific is to deepen U.S. credibility in the region at a time of fiscal constraint, Congress's oversight and appropriations roles, as well as its approval authority over free trade agreements, will help determine to what extent the Administration's plans are implemented and how various trade-offs are managed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86617/
Venezuela: Issues for Congress
The United States traditionally has had close relations with Venezuela, a major supplier of foreign oil, but there has been friction in relations under the government of populist President Hugo Chávez. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about human rights, Venezuela's military arms purchases, its relations with Cuba and Iran, and its efforts to export its brand of populism to other Latin American countries. Declining cooperation on anti-drug and anti-terrorism efforts has also been a concern. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86552/
Venezuela: Issues for Congress
This report covers the issues Venezuela poses for Congress. It examines the Venezualian political situation, its economic conditions, the United States policy toward Venezuela, and the legislative initiatives of the 111th Congress regarding this foreign nation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98952/
Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress
Within the past two decades, prominent foreign policy organizations and foreign policy experts have perceived serious deficiencies in the authorities, organizations, and personnel used to conduct interagency missions that prevent the United States from exercising its power to full advantage. For the 112th Congress, proposals to address these problems may be of interest for their perceived potential not only to enhance performance, but also to save money by streamlining processes, encouraging interagency cooperation, and reducing duplication. These proposals also provide context for current and recent legislation, including the Interagency Personnel Rotation Act of 2011 (S. 1268 and H.R. 2314) and the Contingency Operations Oversight and Interagency Enhancement Act of 2011 (H.R. 3660), as well as the new Global Security Contingency Fund contained in the FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA, Section 1207, H.R. 1540, P.L. 112-81, signed into law December 31, 2011). The FY2012 NDAA requires the President to submit to Congress a “whole-of-government” implementation plan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87196/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
This report discusses details of policy changes regarding travel to Cuba, which have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate Cuba's communist government since the early 1960s. In January 2011, the Obama Administration announced policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances. In the first session of the 112th Congress, there were several attempts aimed at rolling back the Obama Administration's actions easing restrictions on travel and remittances. Several initiatives were also introduced that would further ease or lift such restrictions altogether. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93959/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate the communist government of Fidel Castro for much of the past 40 years. Under the Bush Administration, enforcement of U.S. restrictions on Cuba travel has increased, and restrictions on travel and on private remittances to Cuba have been tightened. Several legislative initiatives have been introduced in the 109th Congress that would ease restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. These bills would, among other things, lift overall restrictions on travel to Cuba, lift the overall embargo, and ease restrictions on exporting agricultural commodities to Cuba. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40182/
Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance
This report discusses U.S. aid to Pakistan including an overview of current developments, a discussion of aid rendered before and after 9/11, the objectives of requesting aid during FY2012, and various issues that Congress needs to consider relating to this topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93879/
Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance
This report discusses the 112th Congress' measures to reduce the federal budget deficit and how this may influence congressional debate over the third-ranking U.S. aid recipient, Pakistan-a country vital to U.S. national security interests but that some say lacks accountability and even credibility. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122210/
Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance
The 112th Congress has been focused measures to reduce the federal budget deficit. This backdrop may influence congressional debate over the third-ranking U.S. aid recipient, Pakistan-a country vital to U.S. national security interests but that some say lacks accountability and even credibility. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83969/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83975/
Palestinian Initiatives for 2011 at the United Nations
This report provides information on the United Nations (U.N.) framework and process for options being discussed regarding possible Palestinian statehood, including overviews of the following topics: the U.N. and recognition of states, observer status in the United Nations, and the criteria and process for United Nations membership. The report also analyzes the prospects for avoiding U.N. action by reaching an Israel-PLO agreement to resume negotiations, as well as the possibility of a compromise U.N. resolution that could set forth parameters for future Israeli-Palestinian negotiations but stop short of addressing the question of Palestinian statehood beyond expressing aspirations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93908/
In Brief: Clarifying the Concept of "Partnership" in National Security
Over the last few years, the term "partnership" has spread like wildfire through official U.S. national security guidance documents and rhetoric. At the Department of Defense (DOD), which spearheaded the proliferation of the term, "partnership" has been used to refer to a broad array of civilian as well as military activities in support of national security.1 At other U.S. government agencies, and at the White House, the use of the term "partnership" has been echoed and applied even more broadly-not only in the national security arena, but also to all facets of U.S. relationships with foreign partners. "Partnership" is not new in either theory or practice. A lack of sufficient strategic direction regarding the use of the term could raise a series of potential concerns for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85422/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93887/
Timor-Leste: Political Dynamics, Development, and International Involvement
This report covers the recent background of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, since its independence from Portugal in May 2002. It discusses the many serious challenges the country faces as it seeks to establish and deepen a stable democracy and develop its economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96727/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96695/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96694/
Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress
This report draws on over three dozen studies with recommendations to improve the current national security system. The studies surveyed include three prepared by the Project on National Security Reform, with comprehensive recommendations, four prepared or co-sponsored by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), and two by RAND in conjunction with the American Academy of Diplomats, as well as reports by the Council on Foreign Relations, the Defense Science Board, the National Defense University, and others. This report draws from these studies, as well as a few articles, for recommendations to improve strategy-making, planning, and budgeting; to improve institutional authorities, structures and arrangements; and, to create interagency personnel policies and mechanisms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87197/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2014 Budget and Appropriations
This report provides a brief overview of the FY2014 State Department, Foreign Operations and Related Programs funding request, as well as top-line analysis of pending House and Senate State-Foreign Operations appropriations proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267806/
America COMPETES Acts: FY2008-FY2013 Funding Tables
This report tracks historical federal funding associated with the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (COMEPETES) Reauthorization Act of 2010, which are set to expire in 2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122271/
Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy
This report provides an overview of the U.S. foreign assistance program by answering frequently asked questions on the subject. It is intended to provide a broad view of foreign assistance over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103053/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress
Report that examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publicly available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227794/
Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis
Report containing information regarding foreign direct investments, including the foreign acquisition of American firms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228123/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2014 Budget and Appropriations
This report provides a brief overview of the FY2014 State Department, Foreign Operations and Related Programs funding request, as well as top-line analysis of pending House and Senate State-Foreign Operations appropriations proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272042/
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report discusses the U.S. policy toward the Central Asia. It provides background information and most recent developments in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. U.S. objectives have included promoting free markets, democratization, human rights, energy development, and the forging of East-West and Central Asia-South Asia trade links. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86653/
Direct Overt U.S. Aid and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2011
Aid and military reimbursements made to Pakistan from 2002-2011. The list is divided by agency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83885/
U.S. Assistance Programs in China
This report examines U.S. foreign assistance activities in the People's Republic of China (PRC), including U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) programming, foreign operations appropriations, policy history, and legislative background. International programs supported by U.S. departments and agencies other than the Department of State and USAID are not covered in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85493/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
This report discusses details of policy changes regarding travel to Cuba, which have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate Cuba's communist government since the early 1960s. In January 2011, the Obama Administration announced policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances. In the first session of the 112th Congress, there were several attempts aimed at rolling back the Obama Administration's actions easing restrictions on travel and remittances. Several initiatives were also introduced that would further ease or lift such restrictions altogether. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93958/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate Cuba's communist government since the early 1960s. In January 2011, the Obama Administration announced policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances. In the first session of the 112th Congress, there were several attempts aimed at rolling back the Obama Administration's actions easing restrictions on travel and remittances. Several initiatives were also introduced that would further ease or lift such restrictions altogether. This report discusses the details of these policy changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87254/
Venezuela: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current Congressional issues in relation to Venezuela, including background on the political situation and recent developments, the economic conditions, relevant U.S. policies, and the legislative initiatives in the 111th and 112th Congresses. The United States traditionally has had close relations with Venezuela, a major supplier of foreign oil, but there has been friction in relations under the government of populist President Hugo Chávez. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about human rights, Venezuela's military arms purchases, its relations with Cuba and Iran, and its efforts to export its brand of populism to other Latin American countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122194/
Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act
This report describes the changes that were made by the FISA Amendments Act within the context of the government's authority to conduct surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122252/
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses
Much of the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran has centered on the nature of the current regime; some believe that Iran, a country of about 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran's regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region. President George W. Bush, in his January 29, 2002, State of the Union message, labeled Iran part of an "axis of evil" along with Iraq and North Korea. This report discusses how the Obama Administration differs from the Bush Administration regarding strategy in Iran relations. This report also discusses the current political state of Iran, including incidents of violence and unrest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40188/
Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations
This report presents an overview of Qatar's history and recent economic and political developments. The report discusses U.S. relations with Qatar, U.S. military cooperation and foreign assistance, political reform and elections, as well as human rights and social issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40184/
Nigeria: Elections and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the political climate, development challenges and reform in Nigeria. The report also deliberates the social issues and security concerns of Nigeria. In addition, other issues are considered as Congress provides oversight for over $600 million in U.S. foreign assistance programs to Nigeria. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40225/
Pakistan-U.S. Relations: A Summary
This report summarizes important recent developments in Pakistan and in Pakistan-U.S. relations. These include high-profile political assassinations earlier in 2011, the Raymond Davis affair involving a CIA operative accused of murder in the city of Lahore, and the May killing of Osama bin Laden in the military cantonment city of Abbottabad, among others. Obama Administration engagement with Pakistan has been seriously disrupted by recent events. A brief analysis of the current state of Pakistan-U.S. relations illuminates the main areas of contention and uncertainty. Vital U.S. interests related to links between Pakistan and indigenous American terrorism, Islamist militancy in Pakistan and Islamabad's policies toward the Afghan insurgency, Pakistan's relations with historic rival India, nuclear weapons proliferation and security, and the troubled status of Pakistan's domestic setting are reviewed. Ongoing human rights concerns are briefly summarized, and the report closes with discussion of U.S. foreign assistance to Pakistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40168/
Nigeria: Elections and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the political climate, development challenges and reform in Nigeria. The report also considers the social issues and security concerns of Nigeria. In addition, other issues are mentioned, as Congress provides oversight for over $600 million in U.S. foreign assistance programs to Nigeria. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99103/
Uzbekistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests
This report discusses the U.S. policy toward the Central Asia. It provides background information and most recent developments in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. U.S. objectives have included promoting free markets, democratization, human rights, energy development, and the forging of East-West and Central Asia-South Asia trade links. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228111/
Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean
This report looks at instances of trafficking in persons (TIP) in Latin America. It looks at current legislation in the U.S. to combat this problem. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94019/
Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues
This report discusses the issue of U.S. economic assistance to sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the importance of continued assistance in light of U.S. national security and also various U.S.-led efforts to promote reform amongst African citizens themselves. U.S. assistance finds its way to Africa through a variety of channels, including the USAID-administered DA program, food aid programs, and indirect aid provided through international financial institutions and the United Nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94069/
U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress
This CRS report, updated as warranted, discusses policy issues regarding military-to-military (mil-to-mil) contacts with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and provides a record of major contacts and crises since 1993. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86645/
Horn of Africa Region: The Humanitarian Crisis and International Response
This report provides an overview of the current status of the crisis, summary background on the region, a framework for the international and humanitarian response, and an analysis of some of the operational challenges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83987/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2012 request and congressional action related to FY2012 State- Foreign Operations legislation. This report focuses on only the accounts funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, but provides appropriations figures for the entire international affairs (Function 150) budget in Appendix E. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83976/
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
Attempts to resolve the Cyprus problem and reunify the island have undergone various levels of negotiation for over 45 years. Talks between Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders have thus far failed to reach a mutually agreed settlement leaving the country with a solution for unification far from being achieved and raising the specter of a possible permanent separation. This report provides a brief overview of the early history of the negotiations, a more detailed review of the negotiations since 2008, and a description of some of the issues involved in the talks. A side issue involving trade between the European Union and Turkish Cyprus is also addressed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93829/
U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview
Two major U.S. trade remedies are antidumping (AD) law, which combats the sale of imported products at less than their fair market value, and countervailing duty (CVD) law, which aims to offset foreign government subsidization of imported goods. This report discusses these two law's impact on U.S. foreign relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85468/
America Competes 2010: FY2012 Funding and FY2008-FY2011 Funding Summary
This report discusses how funding affects the America COMPETES program, and subsequently U.S. interests in R&D in STEM disciplines. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93888/
America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget
The 112th Congress faces several budget and appropriations decisions that may affect implementation of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010. Signed on January 4, 2011, this law seeks to improve U.S. competitiveness and innovation by authorizing, among other things, increased federal support for research in the physical sciences and engineering; and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The specific debate about FY2013 funding for America COMPETES 2010 provisions will occur within the broader context of the national conversation about U.S. competitiveness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86611/
U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress
This report discusses policy issues regarding military-to-military (mil-to-mil) contacts with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and provides a record of major contacts and crises since 1993. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96750/
U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress
This CRS report, updated as warranted, discusses policy issues regarding military-to-military (mil-to-mil) contacts with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and provides a record of major contacts and crises since 1993. Issues for Congress include whether the Obama Administration has complied with legislation overseeing dealings with the PLA and pursued contacts with the PLA that advance a prioritized set of U.S. security interests, especially the operational safety of U.S. military personnel. Oversight legislation includes the Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY1990-FY1991 and National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87284/
America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget
This report discusses the 112th Congress' possible changes to the implementation of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010. Signed on January 4, 2011, this law seeks to improve U.S. competitiveness and innovation by authorizing, among other things, increased federal support for research in the physical sciences and engineering; and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The specific debate about FY2013 funding for America COMPETES 2010 provisions will occur within the broader context of the national conversation about U.S. competitiveness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122224/
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