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 Country: Iran
 Country: Iraq
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Middle East Elections 2009: Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq

Middle East Elections 2009: Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq

Date: May 18, 2009
Creator: Addis, Casey L. & Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report provides an overview of the election contests in Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq, including possible outcomes and implications for U.S. policy. The strategic influence of Iran in the Middle East, the stability of Iraq, and the ongoing war in Afghanistan are at the forefront of U.S. policy and Congressional interest in the region.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Influence in Iraq

Iran's Influence in Iraq

Date: June 13, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran's influence over the post-Saddam government in Iraq is substantial because the predominant parties in that government have long enjoyed Tehran's sponsorship. An emerging concern is that Iran's influence has extended to support for militant groups in Iraq. U.S. officials say that sophisticated explosive devices are entering Iraq from Iran, suggesting that Iran, or factions within Iran, are backing Iraqi factions that use violence to oppose the U.S. presence in Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Influence in Iraq

Iran's Influence in Iraq

Date: November 15, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
War Powers Litigation Initiated by Members of Congress Since the Enactment of the War Powers Resolution

War Powers Litigation Initiated by Members of Congress Since the Enactment of the War Powers Resolution

Date: February 17, 2012
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Description: This report summarizes the eight cases initiated by Members of Congress in which final rulings were reached, which concerned U.S. military activities in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Grenada; military action taken during the Persian Gulf conflict between Iraq and Iran; U.S. activities in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait (prior to the congressional authorization); U.S. participation in NATO's action in Kosovo and Yugoslavia; and U.S. military action in Libya.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Influence in Iraq

Iran's Influence in Iraq

Date: September 29, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran's influence over the post-Saddam government in Iraq is substantial because the predominant parties in that government have long enjoyed Tehran's sponsorship. An emerging concern is that Iran's influence has extended to support for militant groups in Iraq. U.S. officials say that sophisticated explosive devices are entering Iraq from Iran, suggesting that Iran, or factions within Iran, are backing Iraqi factions that use violence to oppose the U.S. presence in Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Influence in Iraq

Iran's Influence in Iraq

Date: November 30, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iran’s influence over the post-Saddam government in Iraq, which is substantial because the predominant parties in that government have long enjoyed Tehran’s sponsorship. An emerging concern is that Iran’s influence has extended to support for militant groups in Iraq. Some U.S. statements and press sources say that sophisticated explosive devices are entering Iraq from Iran, suggesting that Iran, or factions within Iran, are backing Iraqi factions that use violence to oppose the U.S. and allied military presence in Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: September 1, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the state of the Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq, which has been fairly peaceful since the fall of Saddam Hussein; however, the region is also home to friction with Christian and other minorities, with various Arab leaders of Iraq, and with neighboring Turkey and Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: August 5, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: September 25, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Middle East and North Africa: Political Succession and Regime Stability

The Middle East and North Africa: Political Succession and Regime Stability

Date: August 29, 2003
Creator: Thayer, Amy E. & Prados, Alfred B.
Description: This report discusses the political future of various countries in the Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region. A change in the leadership in these countries could significantly affect their policies toward the United States and their willingness to cooperate with the United States in achieving the stability needed to advance U.S. interests in this important region.
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Iran-Iraq Relations

Iran-Iraq Relations

Date: August 13, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report provides background information on Iran's support to armed groups and Iranian political influence. The report discusses the relationship between Iran and Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran-Iraq Relations

Iran-Iraq Relations

Date: April 15, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report provides background information on Iran's support to armed groups and Iranian political influence and specifically discusses the relationship between Iran and Iraq.
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Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Date: September 22, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Much of the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran has centered on the nature of the current regime; some believe that Iran, a country of about 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran's regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region. President George W. Bush, in his January 29, 2002, State of the Union message, labeled Iran part of an "axis of evil" along with Iraq and North Korea.
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Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Date: May 16, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the situation immediately following the completion of the U.S. withdrawal from Iraq on December 18, 2011, when relations among major political factions worsened substantially, threatening Iraq's stability and the legacy of the U.S. intervention in Iraq. It includes an overview of historical and current political, military, and governance issues as well as an analysis of Iraq in relation to the other nations in the region.
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Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Date: April 19, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the situation immediately following the completion of the U.S. withdrawal from Iraq on December 18, 2011, when relations among major political factions worsened substantially, threatening Iraq's stability and the legacy of the U.S. intervention in Iraq. It includes an overview of historical and current political, military, and governance issues as well as an analysis of Iraq in relation to the other nations in the region.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Date: February 23, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the situation immediately following the completion of the U.S. withdrawal from Iraq on December 18, 2011, when relations among major political factions worsened substantially, threatening Iraq's stability and the legacy of the U.S. intervention in Iraq. It includes an overview of historical and current political, military, and governance issues as well as an analysis of Iraq in relation to the other nations in the region.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Date: June 13, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the situation immediately following the completion of the U.S. withdrawal from Iraq on December 18, 2011, when relations among major political factions worsened substantially, threatening Iraq's stability and the legacy of the U.S. intervention in Iraq. It includes an overview of historical and current political, military, and governance issues as well as an analysis of Iraq in relation to the other nations in the region.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: June 3, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the state of the Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq, which has been fairly peaceful since the fall of Saddam Hussein; however, the region is also home to friction with Christian and other minorities, with Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and other Arab leaders of Iraq, and with neighboring Turkey and Iran. The report also addresses other general political issues and tensions in the Kurdish region, and how said tensions might affect and be affected by the projected U.S. drawdown of U.S. forces in Iraq between now and August 2010.
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Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Date: June 2, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraq's political system, which has been restructured through a U.S.-supported election process. The Iraqi government is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition rather than violence, but sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting still remain. This report discusses issues relating to opponents of the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and also discusses the atmosphere of nationwide provincial elections. The report also addresses the Obama Administration's plan to reduce the U.S. troop presence in Iraq by August 2010 and briefly addresses the Iranian influence in Iraq.
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Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: January 7, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the relationship between Iraq and Iran in the post-Saddam Hussein era, with particular focus on what Iran's intentions and/or long-term goals may be for increasing its influence in Iraq. The report explores the various strategies that Iran has used to spread its influence throughout Iraq's military and political spheres. The report also addresses the United States' concern over the Iran-Iraq relationship, especially as it concerns armed Shiite factions and U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: May 14, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting all major Shiite Muslim political factions in Iraq, most of which have longstanding ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran, and their armed militias. The Administration notes growing involvement by Tehran in actively directing training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysis goes so far as to see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: June 16, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting and attempting to influence, in most cases against the United States, major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Administration asserts that Tehran is actively directing, training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysts see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: June 4, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the relationship between Iraq and Iran in the post-Saddam Hussein era, with particular focus on what Iran's intentions and/or long-term goals may be for increasing its influence in Iraq. The report explores the various strategies that Iran has used to spread its influence throughout Iraq's military and political spheres. The report also addresses the United States' concern over the Iran-Iraq relationship, especially as it concerns armed Shiite factions and U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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