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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6355/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2912/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2911/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2910/
China and "Falun Gong"
“Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2249/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2905/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2907/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2908/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2909/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2906/
Vietnam-U.S. Relations: The Debate Over Normalization
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs215/
Congressional Action on Iraq 1990-2002: A Compilation of Legislation
This report is a compilation of legislation on Iraq from 1990 to the present. The list is composed of resolutions and public laws relating to military action and/or diplomatic pressure to be taken against Iraq.1 The list does not include foreign aid appropriations bills passed since FY1994 that deny U.S. funds to any nation in violation of the United Nations sanctions regime against Iraq.2 Also, measures that were not passed only in either the House or the Senate are not included (with the exception of the proposals in the 107th Congress). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2317/
Congressional Action on Iraq 1990-2002: A Compilation of Legislation
This report is a compilation of legislation on Iraq from 1990 to the present. The list is composed of resolutions and public laws relating to military action and/or diplomatic pressure to be taken against Iraq.1 The list does not include foreign aid appropriations bills passed since FY1994 that deny U.S. funds to any nation in violation of the United Nations sanctions regime against Iraq.2 Also, measures that were not passed only in either the House or the Senate are not included (with the exception of the proposals in the 107th Congress). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2318/
Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8062/
Bosnia Stabilization Force (SFOR) and U.S. Policy
In December 1995, a NATO-led implementation force (IFOR) was deployed to Bosnia to enforce the military aspects of the Bosnian peace agreement. After fierce debate, the House and Senate passed separate resolutions in December 1995 expressing support for the U.S. troops in Bosnia, although not necessarily for the mission itself. Legislative efforts to bar funds for the deployment of U.S. troops to Bosnia were narrowly rejected. In the 105th Congress, similar efforts to bar a U.S. deployment after June 1998 were also rejected, although the FY 1998 defense authorization and appropriations laws contain reporting requirements that must be fulfilled before an extended deployment may take place. The defense appropriation measure requires the President to seek a supplemental appropriation for any deployment after June 1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs608/
China and "Falun Gong"
“Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2250/
Iraq: International Support for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs696/
Kosovo's Future Status and U.S. Policy
The future status of Kosovo is the most sensitive and potentially destabilizing political question in the Balkans. The Administration views "getting Kosovo right" as key to integrating the Balkans into Euro-Atlantic institutions. This report discusses the issue of Kosovo's future status; that is, whether it should become an independent country or continue to be part of Serbia, but with a large degree of autonomy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10234/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 108th Congress
The United States and Mexico have a special relationship as neighbors and partners under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The friendly relationship has been strengthened by President Bush's meetings with President Fox but has been weakened by disagreements over Iraq and other issues. Major congressional issues are trade, migration/border security, drug trafficking, and political and human rights issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10201/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8467/
Kosovo's Future Status: Alternative Models
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs992/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4728/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4729/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4726/
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law
This report provides background on the range of actions that might be termed foreign policy sanctions and the events that might necessitate their use. Criteria are offered that legislators might consider to judge when sanctions might be appropriate, approaches that might be effective, aspects of the use of sanctions that are sometimes overlooked or not considered fully. The report provides an uncomplicated "map" of where sanctions policies and options currently lay in U. S. law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs465/
Kosovo's Future Status and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9894/
Congressional Action on Iraq 1990-2002: A Compilation of Legislation
This report is a compilation of legislation on Iraq from 1990 to the present. The list is composed of resolutions and public laws relating to military action and/or diplomatic pressure to be taken against Iraq.1 The list does not include foreign aid appropriations bills passed since FY1994 that deny U.S. funds to any nation in violation of the United Nations sanctions regime against Iraq.2 Also, measures that were not passed only in either the House or the Senate are not included (with the exception of the proposals in the 107th Congress). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4042/
Congressional Action on Iraq 1990-2002: A Compilation of Legislation
This report is a compilation of legislation on Iraq from 1990 to the present. The list is composed of resolutions and public laws relating to military action and/or diplomatic pressure to be taken against Iraq.1 The list does not include foreign aid appropriations bills passed since FY1994 that deny U.S. funds to any nation in violation of the United Nations sanctions regime against Iraq.2 Also, measures that were not passed only in either the House or the Senate are not included (with the exception of the proposals in the 107th Congress). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4041/
Iraq: A Compilation of Legislation Enacted and Resolutions Adopted by Congress, 1990-2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4044/
Iraq: A Compilation of Legislation Enacted and Resolutions Adopted by Congress, 1990-2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4043/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9647/
China and "Falun Gong"
“Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3927/
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law
This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions and the events that might necessitate their use, criteria to consider when determining if sanctions are appropriate, approaches that might be effective, and aspects of the use of sanctions that are sometimes overlooked or not considered fully. The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs730/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7172/
Kosovo's Future Status and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7656/
Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7860/
China and "Falun Gong"
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7854/
Venezuela: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current Congressional issues in relation to Venezuela, including background on the political situation and recent developments, the economic conditions, relevant U.S. policies, and the legislative initiatives in the 111th and 112th Congresses. The United States traditionally has had close relations with Venezuela, a major supplier of foreign oil, but there has been friction in relations under the government of populist President Hugo Chávez. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about human rights, Venezuela's military arms purchases, its relations with Cuba and Iran, and its efforts to export its brand of populism to other Latin American countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122194/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
This report discusses details of policy changes regarding travel to Cuba, which have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate Cuba's communist government since the early 1960s. In January 2011, the Obama Administration announced policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances. In the first session of the 112th Congress, there were several attempts aimed at rolling back the Obama Administration's actions easing restrictions on travel and remittances. Several initiatives were also introduced that would further ease or lift such restrictions altogether. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93958/
Direct Overt U.S. Aid and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2009
Aid and military reimbursements made to Pakistan from 2002-2009. The list is divided by agency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83800/
Direct Overt U.S. Aid and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2011
Aid and military reimbursements made to Pakistan from 2002-2011. The list is divided by agency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83885/
Nigeria: Elections and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the political climate, development challenges and reform in Nigeria. The report also deliberates the social issues and security concerns of Nigeria. In addition, other issues are considered as Congress provides oversight for over $600 million in U.S. foreign assistance programs to Nigeria. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40225/
U.S. Policy Toward the China-Taiwan Relationship: Summary of a CRS Workshop
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs204/
U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress
This CRS report discusses policy issues regarding military-to-mliitary contacts with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and provides a record of contacts since 1993. The United States suspended military contacts with China and imposed sanctions on arms sales in response to the Tiananmen Crackdown in 1989. In 1993, the Clinton Administration began to re-engage the PRC leadership up to the highest level and including China's military, the People's Liberation Army (PLA). Renewed military exchanges with the PLA have not regained the closeness reached in the 1980s, when U.S.-PRC strategic cooperation against the Soviet Union included U.S. arms sales to China. Issues for Congress include whether the current Administration under President Bush has complied with legislation overseeing dealings with the PLA and has determined a program of contacts with the PLA that advances a prioritized list of U.S. security interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40194/
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
This report reviews the ongoing programs that will affect the expected size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force structure. It begins with an overview of this force structure during the Cold War, and summarizes the reductions and changes that have occurred since 1991. It then offers details about each category of delivery vehicle, focusing on their current deployments and ongoing and planned modernization programs. The report concludes with a discussion of issues related to decisions about the future size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40218/
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union
This report focuses on funding for threat reduction and nonproliferation programs in the states of the former Soviet Union. Although the United States has expanded its efforts to programs that seek to assist other nations in securing nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons materials, the overwhelming majority of U.S. funds still support programs in the former Soviet states. Nevertheless, because U.S. funding and focus has shifted in recent years, this report provides only a partial view of U.S. nonproliferation and threat reduction programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40185/
U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress
This CRS report, updated as warranted, discusses policy issues regarding military-to-military (mil-to-mil) contacts with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and provides a record of major contacts and crises since 1993. Issues for Congress include whether the Obama Administration has complied with legislation overseeing dealings with the PLA and pursued contacts with the PLA that advance a prioritized set of U.S. security interests, especially the operational safety of U.S. military personnel. Oversight legislation includes the Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY1990-FY1991 and National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87284/
War Powers Litigation Initiated by Members of Congress Since the Enactment of the War Powers Resolution
This report summarizes the eight cases initiated by Members of Congress in which final rulings were reached, which concerned U.S. military activities in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Grenada; military action taken during the Persian Gulf conflict between Iraq and Iran; U.S. activities in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait (prior to the congressional authorization); U.S. participation in NATO's action in Kosovo and Yugoslavia; and U.S. military action in Libya. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87248/
Crisis in the Central African Republic
This report provides background on the evolving political, security, and humanitarian crisis in the Central African Republic (CAR), which began when a fractious rebel coalition seized control of the central government in March 2013. The report also describes U.S. policy responses and analyzes possible issues for Congress, including oversight of U.S. humanitarian assistance and support for international stabilization efforts in CAR. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276913/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2013 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2013 request and congressional action related to FY2013 State-Foreign Operations legislation. The 112th Congress is considering FY2013 international affairs funding within the context of the Budget Control Act that established discretionary spending limits for FY2012-FY2021 and contains automatic budget reductions (sequestration) on discretionary spending to begin on January 2, 2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99068/