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 Country: Russia
 Language: English
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries
This report begins with a brief discussion of the Russian oil and gas industries, including their efforts to purchase energy infrastructure in central and Eastern Europe and reduce energy subsidies to neighboring countries. A second section deals with the impact of recent Russian energy policy on neighboring countries, all of them formerly part of the Soviet Union, de facto or de jure, and all heavily dependent on Russian energy imports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94129/
Kosovo's Independence and U.S. Policy
On February 17, 2008, Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia. On February 18, the United States recognized Kosovo as an independent state. Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and most other European Union countries have also recognized Kosovo. Serbia and Russia have heatedly objected to the recognition of Kosovo's independence. Independent Kosovo faces many challenges, including its relations with Serbia and Serbs in Kosovo, as well as weak institutions and an underdeveloped economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10602/
U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress
This report discusses key policy issues related to a nuclear cooperation agreement between the United States and Russia signed on May 6, 2008, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation, and Russia's policies toward Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122329/
The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress
This report discusses the G-20, an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies among major advanced and emerging economies. Previous summits have, for example, focused on financial regulatory reform, global imbalances, funding for the International Monetary Fund (IMF), voting power of emerging economies in international financial institutions, and fossil fuel subsidies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272004/
The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress
This report discusses the background of the G-20 (an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies) and some of the issues that it has addressed. It includes historic background on the work of the G-20, information about how the group operates, overviews of G-20 summits, major issues that the group is likely to address and the likely effectiveness of the G-20 in the near future. The members of the G-20 include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99014/
United Nations Reform: U.S. Policy and International Perspectives
This report focuses on U.N. reform efforts and priorities from the perspective of several key actors, including the U.S. government, the U.N. Secretary-General, selected member states, and a cross-section of groups tasked with addressing U.N. reform. It also examines congressional actions related to U.N. reform, as well as future policy considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84072/
Europe's Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification
This report focuses on potential approaches that Europe might employ to diversify its sources of natural gas supply, Russia's role in Europe's natural gas policies, and key factors that could hinder efforts to develop alternative suppliers of natural gas. The report assesses the potential suppliers of natural gas to Europe and the short- to medium-term hurdles needed to be overcome for those suppliers to be credible, long-term providers of natural gas to Europe. The report looks at North Africa, potentially the most realistic supply alternative in the near term, but notes that the region will have to resolve its current political, economic, and security instability as well as the internal structural changes to the natural gas industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227749/
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Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
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Russia's March 2012 Presidential Election: Outcome and Implications
Challenges to Russia's democratic development have long been of concern to Congress as it has considered the course of U.S.-Russia cooperation. Some in Congress have criticized the conduct of the election, but have endorsed continued engagement, while others have called for stepping back and reevaluating the Obama Administration's engagement policy which assists in solving mutual strategic concerns. Congress may consider the implications of another Putin presidency, lagging democratization, and human rights abuses in Russia as it debates possible future foreign assistance and trade legislation and other aspects of U.S.-Russia relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86607/
Russian Military Reform and Defense Policy
This report looks at the Russia's revamping of the armed forces that it inherited from the Soviet Union. It discusses the revamping process as well as the new armed forces' relationship with the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93904/
The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress
This report discusses the background of the G-20 (an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies) and some of the issues that it has addressed. It includes historic background on the work of the G-20, information about how the group operates, overviews of G-20 summits, major issues that the group is likely to address and the likely effectiveness of the G-20 in the near future. The members of the G-20 include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267832/
Russia's December 2011 Legislative Election: Outcome and Implications
This report discusses the December 2011 elections in Russia, including background information, the campaign, results and assessments of the election, implications for Russia and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, and implications for U.S. interests. Congress may consider the implications of another Putin presidency, lagging democratization, and human rights abuses in Russia as it debates possible future foreign assistance and trade legislation and other aspects of U.S.-Russia relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93916/
Europe's Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification
This report focuses on potential approaches that Europe might employ to diversify its sources of natural gas supply, Russia's role in Europe's natural gas policies, and key factors that could hinder efforts to develop alternative suppliers of natural gas. The report assesses the potential suppliers of natural gas to Europe and the short- to medium-term hurdles needed to be overcome for those suppliers to be credible, long-term providers of natural gas to Europe. The report looks at North Africa, potentially the most realistic supply alternative in the near-term, but notes that the region will have to resolve its current political, economic, and security instability as well as the internal structural changes to the natural gas industry. Central Asia, which may have the greatest amounts of natural gas, would need to construct lengthy pipelines through multiple countries to move its natural gas to Europe. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462587/
Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests
This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé, Dmitriy Medvedev, both of which have steered Russia away from progress toward democratization. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29670/
Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests
This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé, Dmitriy Medvedev, both of which have steered Russia away from progress toward democratization. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87310/
Monitoring and Verification in Arms Control
This report reviews some of the monitoring and verification provisions in the new START Treaty between the U.S. and Russia and compares these with some of the provisions in the original START Treaty. It focuses, specifically, on differences between the treaties in the provisions governing the exchange of data, known as telemetry, generated during missile flight tests; provisions governing the monitoring of mobile intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs); and differences in the numbers and types of on-site inspections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103092/
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests
U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10405/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
On May 24, 2002, President Bush and Russia's President Putin signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (known as the Treaty of Moscow) that will reduce strategic nuclear weapons to between 1,700 and 2,200 warheads by December 31, 2012. Russia convinced the United States to sign a legally binding treaty, but the United States rejected any limits and counting rules that would require the elimination of delivery vehicles and warheads removed from service. It wanted the flexibility to reduce its forces at its own pace, and to restore warheads to deployed forces if conditions warranted. Russian officials have hailed the success of Russia's diplomacy in convincing the United States to sign a legally binding Treaty that casts Russia as an equal partner in the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10461/
Soviet Policy Toward the Third World
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Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests
U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9885/
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests
U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6290/
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