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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
East Central Europe: Status of International Criminal Court (ICC) Exemption Agreements and U.S. Military Assistance

East Central Europe: Status of International Criminal Court (ICC) Exemption Agreements and U.S. Military Assistance

Date: November 25, 2003
Creator: Kim, Julie
Description: In a broad effort to obtain U.S. exemptions from International Criminal Court (ICC) jurisdiction, the Bush Administration has sought to conclude bilateral agreements worldwide that would prohibit the transfer of U.S. citizens to the ICC. The European Union has strongly promoted the ICC and is opposed to the U.S.- proposed agreements. This report addresses twelve countries of east central Europe affected by the U.S. and European policies – Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia – and the status of their varied approaches to the transatlantic disagreement over the ICC.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust: Background and Current Issues

The Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust: Background and Current Issues

Date: April 17, 2003
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: The Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust is becoming a critical component of the U.S. response to humanitarian food emergencies in Africa, Iraq, and elsewhere. The Trust, as presently constituted, was enacted in the 1998 Africa Seeds of Hope Act (P.L. 105- 385). It replaced the Food Security Commodity Reserve established in 1996 and its predecessor the Food Security Wheat Reserve of 1980. This report discusses the administration’s proposals to reduce food aid’s reliance on surplus commodities and anticipated demand for emergency food aid have focused renewed attention on the Emerson Trust, which has been used four times in FY2002 and FY2003 to meet unanticipated food needs in Africa and Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Primer on P.L. 480 -- Program History, Description, and Operations: A Brief Compilation of Explanatory Documents

Primer on P.L. 480 -- Program History, Description, and Operations: A Brief Compilation of Explanatory Documents

Date: November 13, 1984
Creator: Epstein, Susan B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethiopian Food Situation: International Response

Ethiopian Food Situation: International Response

Date: June 28, 1985
Creator: Barnes, Lafayette
Description: The United States has donated the largest share of the world-wide relief effort. Members of Congress nave passed legislation, the African Famine Relief and Recovery Act of 1985 (2.L. 99-8), authorizing emergency relief assistance to Ethiopia and other famine-stricken countries. Some observers favor trying to remove restrictions that prohibit long-term agricultural development assistance and other forms of economic aid to Ethiopia, but many continue to believe that aid to this Marxist-oriented nation should be limited to humanitarian relief. The Ethiopian food situation will probably remain a central issue among U.S. lawmakers and relief officials during the 99th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
African Famine: U.S. Response

African Famine: U.S. Response

Date: June 27, 1985
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.; Copson, Raymond W.; Epstein, Susan B.; Kenworthy, Holly & Nowels, Larry
Description: This report discusses the 1985 African famine situation, especially regarding U.S. emergency assistance at a time of U.S. domestic budgetary restraints, the adequacy of U.S. measures for monitoring and anticipating food emergencies, and the scale and nature of U.S. agricultural development programs intended to prevent future famines.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Date: March 30, 2006
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Description: This report discusses the so-called “Article 98 agreements”. The article contains a provision that the Bush Administration has sought bilateral agreements worldwide to exempt U.S. citizens from ICC prosecution. In 2002, Congress passed the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act or ASPA (P.L. 107-206, title II), which prohibits military assistance to countries that are party to the ICC and that do not have Article 98 agreements. Some Members of Congress and Bush Administration officials have expressed concerns about the unintended effects of these sanctions on U.S. relations with Latin America. Policymakers are considering some options to mitigate these effects without undermining ASPA or diplomatic efforts to secure Article 98 agreements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Date: April 10, 2006
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Description: This report discusses the so-called “Article 98 agreements”. The article contains a provision that the Bush Administration has sought bilateral agreements worldwide to exempt U.S. citizens from ICC prosecution. In 2002, Congress passed the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act or ASPA (P.L. 107-206, title II), which prohibits military assistance to countries that are party to the ICC and that do not have Article 98 agreements. Some Members of Congress and Bush Administration officials have expressed concerns about the unintended effects of these sanctions on U.S. relations with Latin America. Policymakers are considering some options to mitigate these effects without undermining ASPA or diplomatic efforts to secure Article 98 agreements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Earthquake in South Asia: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations

The Earthquake in South Asia: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations

Date: March 24, 2006
Creator: Kronenfeld, Daniel & Margesson, Rhoda
Description: The powerful earthquake struck northern Pakistan and India damaged the homes of as many as three million people, forcing many of them to search for alternative means of shelter. The full extent of the destruction remains unknown because government authorities and relief organizations continue to have difficulty accessing some remote locations. As of the date of this report, the United States government (USG) has pledged $410 million toward the relief effort, almost all of it to assisting Pakistan, which remains a key U.S. ally in the war against terror. So far, about 35% of this pledge has been committed. Some aid agencies are saying that the country needs a great deal more aid than it is getting, and warn that the economic impact of the disaster will surpass $5.2 billion. This burden may contribute toward long-term instability in an area perceived to be of critical importance to the United States in the war on terror.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: May 9, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Costa Rica: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Costa Rica: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Date: March 31, 1987
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: This issue brief provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Costa Rica. It is one in a series on U.S. assistance to key countries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Guatemala: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Guatemala: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Date: March 31, 1987
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: In the past three years, the Administration has moved to substantially increase U.S. aid levels for Guatemala from $18.3 million in FY84 to a proposed $149.7 million in FY88. Budgetary limits on the overall size of the U.S. foreign aid program may cause reductions in the proposed 1988 levels, however, independent of any choices related to the Guatemalan, situation. This issue brief provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Guatemala. It also outlines major issues that have arisen in the aid debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Honduras: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Honduras: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Date: March 31, 1987
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: This report provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Honduras. It also outlines major issues that have arisen in the aid debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related Funding Programs: FY2007 Assistance

Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related Funding Programs: FY2007 Assistance

Date: April 18, 2006
Creator: Veillette, Connie
Description: This report discusses the funds and material support the U.S. has contributed to help Colombia and the Andean region fight drug trafficking since the development of Plan Colombia in 1999.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: April 6, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Caribbean Basin Initiative

Caribbean Basin Initiative

Date: April 13, 1983
Creator: Congressional Reference Division
Description: On August 5, 1983, President Reagan signed Public Law 98-67, which provides duty-free entry into the United States for certain Caribbean exports and allows U.S. business people to take tax deductions for the expense of attending conventions in the Caribbean region.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture in Afghanistan and Neighboring Asian Countries

Agriculture in Afghanistan and Neighboring Asian Countries

Date: November 16, 2001
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: Agriculture (as measured by share of gross domestic product and employment) is a significant economic sector in seven Central and South Asian countries: Afghanistan, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. All of these countries are net food importers. Some have experienced successive years of drought, which has contributed to noticeable declines in agricultural output and the need to increase commodity imports. The United Nations’ World Food Program reports that both Afghanistan and Tajikistan are currently in need of emergency food assistance to cover sizable food deficits. The food outlook in Afghanistan is made uncertain by ongoing military conflict.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Foreign Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean

U.S. Foreign Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean

Date: March 16, 2006
Creator: Veillette, Connie; Ribando, Clare & Sullivan, Mark P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: March 17, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kissinger Commission Implementation: Actions by the Congress Through 1986 on the Recommendations of the National Bipartisan Commission of Central America

Kissinger Commission Implementation: Actions by the Congress Through 1986 on the Recommendations of the National Bipartisan Commission of Central America

Date: March 7, 1987
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Major Trends in U.S. Foreign Assistance to Central America: 1978-1986

Major Trends in U.S. Foreign Assistance to Central America: 1978-1986

Date: April 8, 1986
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Liberia: Transition to Peace

Liberia: Transition to Peace

Date: October 28, 2004
Creator: Cook, Nicolas
Description: This report covers recent events in Liberia and related U.S. policy. In 2003, Liberia began a post-conflict transition process to achieve enduring peace, socio-economic reconstruction and democratic governance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: February 21, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Foreign Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean

U.S. Foreign Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean

Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Veillette, Connie; Ribando, Clare & Sullivan, Mark P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department