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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment
The proposed acquisition of major operations in six major U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World and of Unocal by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation sparked intense concerns among some Members of Congress and the public and has reignited the debate over what role foreign acquisitions play in U.S. national security. The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress that can be grouped into four major areas: those that deal specifically with the proposed Dubai Ports World acquisition; those that focus more generally on foreign ownership of U.S. ports; those that would amend the CFIUS process; and those that would amend the Exon-Florio process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8980/
The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare
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The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) is an interagency committee that serves the President in overseeing the national security implications of foreign investment in the economy. Since it was established by an Executive Order of President Ford in 1975, the committee has operated in relative obscurity.1 According to a Treasury Department memorandum, the Committee originally was established in order to placate Congress, which had grown concerned over the rapid increase in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) investments in American portfolio assets (Treasury securities, corporate stocks and bonds), and to respond to concerns of some that much of the OPEC investments were being driven by political, rather than by economic, motives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9420/
The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6035/
Banking Acquisition and Merger Procedures
This report discusses in general terms the basic process and time line for banking industry acquisitions and mergers and briefly discusses the May 4, 1998 application by Travelers Group to merge with Citicorp. Among the issues discussed are: potential impact on consumers; whether the new entities would be too big to fail; and, whether competitive equity calls for financial modernization legislation with functional regulation of the securities, banking, and insurance sectors of companies offering customers a full range of financial products and services. Legislative developments on financial modernization issues in the 105th Congress are reported in CRS Issue Brief 97034, which is available on the Legislative Information System. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs686/
Financial Services Trade with Japan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs265/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2707/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2708/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2709/
Employment-Related Issues in Bankruptcy
This report provides an overview of the status of employee wages and benefits, including retiree benefits, when an employer files in bankruptcy, and the amendments made to the U.S. Bankruptcy Code by the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act. This report examines those provisions in the U.S. Bankruptcy Code which govern the priority of employee wage and benefit claims, including severance payments; procedures for a chapter 1 1 debtor to modify benefits under a collective bargaining agreement; and procedures for a chapter 11 debtor to modify retiree life and health insurance benefits. It examines the role of employees on creditor committees and procedures in bankruptcy that facilitate lawsuits that may be directed at an employer/debtor. Finally, it considers the treatment accorded some aspects of managerial compensation, such as retention bonuses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8226/
Comparison of Tax Incentives of Domestic Manufacturing: 108th Congress
The enacted provision of this legislation (H.R. 4520), following the passage of the Senate’s version (then S. 1637) and the House bill (H.R. 4520) followed the Senate version, which allowed a deduction and would cover unincorporated firms as well as corporations. However, the proposal contained the broader definition of manufacturing in the House bill which included oil and gas extraction, utilities, construction, and electricity. This report discusses the provisions in these two versions of the subsidy as well as some of the issues surrounding alternative methods of providing a manufacturing subsidy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6477/
Comparison of Tax Incentives of Domestic Manufacturing in Current Legislative Proposals
This report presents two approaches that have quite different implications for tax administration and Compliance. First, additional domestic investment would have both a direct tax benefit effect, and an indirect effect through increasing the ratio of domestic to world production. Secondly, if one considers the other provisions of H.R. 2896 and S. 1637, these provisions provide benefits (in some cases quite large benefits) to investment overseas that could more than offset any domestic incentive. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6538/
China's Exchange Rate Peg: Economic Issues and Options for U.S. Trade Policy
The continued rise in the U.S.-China trade imbalance and complaints from U.S. manufacturing firms and workers over the competitive challenges posed by cheap Chinese imports have led several Members to call for a more aggressive U.S. stance against certain Chinese trade policies they deem to be unfair, such as China’s policy of pegging its currency (the yuan) to the U.S. dollar. Some Members assert this policy constitutes a form of “currency manipulation” intended to give China an unfair trade advantage and is contributing to the loss of U.S. manufacturing jobs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6790/
Highway and Transit Program Reauthorization Legislation in the 2nd Session, 108th Congress
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Highway and Transit Program Reauthorization Legislation in the 2nd Session, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6083/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2711/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2710/
Optional Federal Chartering for Insurers: Major Interest Groups
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Restructuring Electricity Markets, Public Power, and Tax-Exempt Bonds: An Economic Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs688/
Securities Litigation Reform: Unfinished Business?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs685/
The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment
The proposed acquisition of major operations in six major U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World and of Unocal by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation sparked intense concerns among some Members of Congress and the public and has reignited the debate over what role foreign acquisitions play in U.S. national security. The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress that can be grouped into four major areas: those that deal specifically with the proposed Dubai Ports World acquisition; those that focus more generally on foreign ownership of U.S. ports; those that would amend the CFIUS process; and those that would amend the Exon-Florio process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9829/
Trade Deficits and the Dollar: Bibliography-in-Brief, 1984-1987
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9592/
527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change
This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. For developments after the enactment of P.L. 106-230, please see CRS Report RS20650, 527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9625/
The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment
The proposed acquisition of major operations in six major U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World and of Unocal by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation sparked intense concerns among some Members of Congress and the public and has reignited the debate over what role foreign acquisitions play in U.S. national security. The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress that can be grouped into four major areas: those that deal specifically with the proposed Dubai Ports World acquisition; those that focus more generally on foreign ownership of U.S. ports; those that would amend the CFIUS process; and those that would amend the Exon-Florio process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9704/
Executive Compensation in Bankruptcy: The Fairness and Accountability in Reorganizations Act
S. 2556 and its companion bill, H.R. 5113, 109th Congress, 2nd Sess. (2006), introduced by Senator Bayh and Representative Conyers, respectively, are entitled the Fairness and Accountability in Reorganizations Act of 2006. The legislation, according to its sponsors, is intended to “ensure that workers are treated more fairly during [bankruptcy] reorganizations by limiting executive compensation deals and requiring corporations to provide a more accurate picture of their holdings before attempting to modify collective bargaining agreements or promised health benefits.” This report surveys the bill’s provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9151/
Social Security: How is it Treated in Determining the Federal Budget?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9196/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4547/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4548/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4549/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4546/
Trade Deficits and the Dollar: Bibliography-in-Brief, 1984-1987
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9602/
The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment
The proposed acquisition of major operations in six major U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World and of Unocal by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation sparked intense concerns among some Members of Congress and the public and has reignited the debate over what role foreign acquisitions play in U.S. national security. The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress that can be grouped into four major areas: those that deal specifically with the proposed Dubai Ports World acquisition; those that focus more generally on foreign ownership of U.S. ports; those that would amend the CFIUS process; and those that would amend the Exon-Florio process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9413/
Campaign Finance: Brief Overview of
On May 2, 2003, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia issued its decision in McConnell v. FEC, striking down many key provisions of the law. This report provides a brief overview of the court’s decision and will be updated. The three-judge panel, which was split 2 to 1 on many issues, ordered that its ruling take effect immediately. Since the court has issued its opinion, several appeals have been filed. Under the BCRA expedited review provision, the court’s decision will be reviewed directly by the U.S. Supreme Court. On May 19 the U.S. district court issued a stay to its ruling, which leaves BCRA, as enacted, in effect until the Supreme Court issues a decision. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4404/
Campaign Finance: Brief Overview of
On May 2, 2003, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia issued its decision in McConnell v. FEC, striking down many key provisions of the law. This report provides a brief overview of the court’s decision and will be updated. The three-judge panel, which was split 2 to 1 on many issues, ordered that its ruling take effect immediately. Since the court has issued its opinion, several appeals have been filed. Under the BCRA expedited review provision, the court’s decision will be reviewed directly by the U.S. Supreme Court. On May 19 the U.S. district court issued a stay to its ruling, which leaves BCRA, as enacted, in effect until the Supreme Court issues a decision digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4403/
FY1998 USDA Budget and Appropriations: Domestic Food Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs443/
Campus-Based Student Financial Aid Programs Under the Higher Education Act
This report discusses the issues likely to be considered during reauthorization are whether the campus-based programs provide types of aid to students that are not or cannot be provided via other postsecondary aid programs, and whether the current formulas for allocating funds to institutions for the operation of these programs are optimal. Provisions specific to each program, such as requirements for community service under FWS and terms and conditions of Perkins Loans also may be considered. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9104/
Optional Federal Chartering for Insurers: Major Interest Groups
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4674/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4551/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4550/
The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3372/
The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment
The proposed acquisition of major operations in six major U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World and of Unocal by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation sparked intense concerns among some Members of Congress and the public and has reignited the debate over what role foreign acquisitions play in U.S. national security. The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress that can be grouped into four major areas: those that deal specifically with the proposed Dubai Ports World acquisition; those that focus more generally on foreign ownership of U.S. ports; those that would amend the CFIUS process; and those that would amend the Exon-Florio process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7748/
The Berne Union: An Overview
The Berne Union, or the International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers, is an international organization comprised of 54 public and private sector members that represent various segments of the export credit and investment insurance industry. Within the Berne Union, the United States is represented by the U.S. Export-Import Bank (Eximbank) and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) and four private-sector firms and by one observer. Congress, through its oversight of Eximbank and OPIC, as well as international trade and finance, has interests in the functioning of the Berne Union. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7965/
The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs778/
Budget Reconciliation: Projections of Funding in the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
In FY2005, six states faced the prospect of running out of federal funds in the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). This was the first time since the program’s creation in 1997 that multiple states faced such a shortfall. The shortfalls were avoided by the redistribution of funds from other states’ original SCHIP allotments that had not been spent by the end of the three-year period of availability. To address this, the reconciliation proposal approved by the Senate Finance Committee would reduce the period of availability for original allotments from three years to two. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7916/
Credit Union Regulatory Improvements Act of 2005 (CURIA)
On May 12, 2005, regulatory modernization legislation for credit unions was introduced as H.R. 2317. The three titles of the Credit Union Regulatory Improvements Act (CURIA) would provide regulatory changes requested by credit union industry advocates. These changes would provide supervisory flexibility to the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), the federal regulator for the credit union industry, enhance the ability of credit unions to provide loans to their members, and ease credit union regulatory burdens. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7754/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
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VA-Home Loan Guaranty Program: An Overview
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Taxes, Exports and Investment: ETI/FSC and Domestic Investment Proposals in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7583/
Proposed Changes to the Conforming Loan Limit
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7956/
The Economic Implications of the Long-Term Federal Budget Outlook
Report that analyzes the long-run path of the federal budget in the face of a projected demographic shift as aging baby boomers retire, coupled with the 2007 financial crises. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228007/