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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
China's Currency Peg: A Summary of the Economic Issues

China's Currency Peg: A Summary of the Economic Issues

Date: April 25, 2005
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report evaluates that assertion, and considers other effects China’s peg has on the U.S. economy. These include the beneficial effects on consumption, interest rates, and investment spending. Nationwide, these effects should offset job loss in the trade sector, at least in the medium term. Several bills have been introduced in the 109th Congress to address China’s currency policy, including H.R. 1216, H.R. 1498, H.R. 1575, S. 14, S. 295, S. 377, and S. 593; some would impose trade sanctions against China unless it accepted a market-based system of currency valuation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China’s Currency: U.S. Options

China’s Currency: U.S. Options

Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: In recent years, the United States and China have disagreed whether China’s national currency, the yuan or renminbi, is properly valued compared to the U.S. dollar and whether China is manipulating its currency.1 The United States has pushed China to raise the value of its currency. Chinese officials say they want to make their exchange rate system more flexible, but China also needs long-term stability in its currency value in order to avoid dislocations. Chinese officials also say they will not bow to foreign pressure. China announced a new exchange rate procedure on July 21, 2005. This report summarizes this controversy, it describes actions and positions taken by the United States, China and other countries, and it discusses various approaches the United States might use to address this concern.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Cost of Government Financial Interventions, Past and Present

The Cost of Government Financial Interventions, Past and Present

Date: September 23, 2008
Creator: Webel, Baird; Weiss, N. Eric & Labonte, Marc
Description: In response to ongoing financial turmoil that began in the subprime mortgage-backed securities market, the federal government has intervened with private corporations on a large scale and in an ad hoc manner three times from the beginning of 2008 through September 19, 2008. These interventions have prompted questions regarding the taxpayer costs and the sources of funding. The federal government may or may not end up seeing a positive fiscal contribution from the recent interventions. The results of previous government financial interventions are summarized in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians

U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians

Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Webel, Baird; Weiss, N. Eric & Labonte, Marc
Description: In response to ongoing financial turmoil that began in the subprime mortgage-backed securities market, the federal government has intervened with private corporations on a large scale and in an ad hoc manner three times from the beginning of 2008 through September 19, 2008. These interventions have prompted questions regarding the taxpayer costs and the sources of funding. The federal government may or may not end up seeing a positive fiscal contribution from the recent interventions. The results of previous government financial interventions are summarized in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in Conservatorship

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in Conservatorship

Date: September 15, 2008
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: On September 7, 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, two government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) that play a critical play in the U.S. home mortgage market, in conservatorship. As conservator, the FHFA has full powers to control the assets and operation of the firms. Dividends to common and preferred shareholders are suspended, but the U.S. Treasury has put in place a set of financing agreements to ensure that the GSEs continue to meet their obligations to holders of bonds that they have issued or guaranteed. This means that the U.S. taxpayer now stands behind about $5 trillion of GSE debt. This report provides basic information on the GSEs, the government intervention, and the potential cost to the taxpayer.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
France: Factors Shaping Foreign Policy, and Issues in U.S.-French Relations

France: Factors Shaping Foreign Policy, and Issues in U.S.-French Relations

Date: May 19, 2006
Creator: Gallis, Paul E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
France: Factors Shaping Foreign Policy, and Issues in U.S.-French Relations

France: Factors Shaping Foreign Policy, and Issues in U.S.-French Relations

Date: January 10, 2005
Creator: Gallis, Paul E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
War Bonds in the Second World War: A Model for Hurricane Recovery Bonds?

War Bonds in the Second World War: A Model for Hurricane Recovery Bonds?

Date: October 20, 2005
Creator: Bickley, James M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Limiting Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's Portfolio Size

Limiting Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's Portfolio Size

Date: October 21, 2005
Creator: Weiss, Eric
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China, the United States and the IMF: Negotiating Exchange Rate Adjustment

China, the United States and the IMF: Negotiating Exchange Rate Adjustment

Date: March 13, 2006
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: In recent years, the United States and other countries have expressed considerable concern that China’s national currency (the yuan or renminbi) is seriously undervalued. Some analysts say the yuan needs to rise by as much as 40% in order to reflect its equilibrium value. Critics say that China’s undervalued currency provides it with an unfair trade advantage that has seriously injured the manufacturing sector in the United States. Chinese officials counter that they have not pegged the yuan to the dollar in order to gain trade advantages. Rather, they say the fixed rate promotes economic stability that is vital for the functioning of its domestic economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department