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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Government's Long-Term Fiscal Shortfall: How Much Is Attributable to Social Security?

The Government's Long-Term Fiscal Shortfall: How Much Is Attributable to Social Security?

Date: August 29, 2005
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report discusses social security in the context of the federal budget. One rationale given for Social Security reform is the large long-term fiscal shortfall that Social Security is projected to face.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Is the U.S. Trade Deficit Caused by a Global Saving Glut?

Is the U.S. Trade Deficit Caused by a Global Saving Glut?

Date: November 4, 2005
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report discusses the concern about the size of the current U.S. account deficit, popularly known as the trade deficit. Also compares and analyzes the conventional view with the global saving glut view.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislation Eliminating the Federal Reserve's Surplus

Legislation Eliminating the Federal Reserve's Surplus

Date: November 20, 2015
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: The Fed retains some of its profits in a surplus account, which currently has a balance of $29.3 billion. This report discusses H.Amdt. 824 to the highway bill (H.R. 22) and H.R. 3189, which would permanently eliminate the surplus.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Leverage Ratios in Bank Capital Requirements

Leverage Ratios in Bank Capital Requirements

Date: October 31, 2014
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report provides a summary of leverage ratios used in bank capital requirements. It also explains the concept of leverage and the rationale behind a leverage ratio.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: January 7, 2014
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report discusses how the Federal Reserve (Fed) handles monetary policy, including background information about the execution of monetary policy, the recent and current stance of monetary policy, and current legislation and Congressional oversight that would affect the Fed's practices.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: June 1, 2014
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report discusses how the Federal Reserve (Fed) handles monetary policy, including background information about the execution of monetary policy, the recent and current stance of monetary policy, and current legislation and Congressional oversight that would affect the Fed's practices.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: February 12, 2013
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report provides an overview of the Federal Reserve and issues for Congress. The Federal Reserve (the Fed) defines monetary policy as the actions it undertakes to influence the availability and cost of money and credit. Because the expectations of market participants play an important role in determining prices and growth, monetary policy can also be defined to include the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Fed that influence how the future is perceived. In addition, the Fed acts as a "lender of last resort" to the nation's financial system, meaning that it ensures continued smooth functioning of financial intermediation by providing financial markets with adequate liquidity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: February 9, 2015
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report provides an overview of monetary policy and recent developments. It discusses issues for Congress, including transparency and proposals to change the Fed's mandate, and ends with a brief overview of the Fed's regulatory responsibilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: March 31, 2010
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report discusses two of the four major responsibilities of the Federal Reserve (Fed) as the nation's central bank: execution of monetary policy and ensuring financial stability through the lender of last resort function. This report provides an overview of these mandates and activities, recent developments, and the role of Congressional oversight.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: July 6, 2012
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report discusses how the Federal Reserve (Fed) handles monetary policy, including background information about the execution of monetary policy, the recent and current stance of monetary policy, and current legislation and Congressional oversight that would affect the Fed's practices.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: January 30, 2012
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: The Federal Reserve (Fed) defines monetary policy as the actions it undertakes to influence the availability and cost of money and credit. Since the expectations of market participants play an important role in determining prices and growth, monetary policy can also be defined to include the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Fed that influence how the future is perceived. In addition, the Fed acts as a “lender of last resort” to the nation's financial system, meaning that it ensures continued smooth functioning of financial intermediation by providing financial markets with adequate liquidity. This role has become of great importance following the onset of the recent financial crisis. Congress has delegated responsibility for monetary policy to the Fed, but retains oversight responsibilities to ensure that the Fed is adhering to its statutory mandate “maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.” This report looks at the background and influences of current legislation that would affect the Fed's practices.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Issues for Congress

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Issues for Congress

Date: June 18, 2015
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report provides an overview of monetary policy and recent developments. It discusses issues for Congress, including transparency and proposals to change the Fed's mandate, and ends with a brief overview of the Fed's regulatory responsibilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Debt: Who Bears Its Burden?

The National Debt: Who Bears Its Burden?

Date: March 12, 2010
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report discusses various views on the issue of who bears the burden of the national debt, future generations or the generation that incurred it.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Negative Interest Rates

Negative Interest Rates

Date: April 20, 2016
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: In a few foreign economies, including the euro area, Switzerland, and Japan, central banks have purposely set some short-term interest rates used to carry out monetary policy at negative levels. This report briefly discusses the reasons behind this phenomenon.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reintroduction of the 30-Year Treasury Bond: An Economic Analysis

Reintroduction of the 30-Year Treasury Bond: An Economic Analysis

Date: August 8, 2005
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report discusses the reintroduction of the 30-year bond that could reduce government borrowing costs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Supervision of U.S. Payment, Clearing, and Settlement Systems: Designation of Financial Market Utilities (FMUs)

Supervision of U.S. Payment, Clearing, and Settlement Systems: Designation of Financial Market Utilities (FMUs)

Date: September 10, 2012
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report outlines the changes to the supervision of key market infrastructure that are embodied in the Dodd-Frank Act. It is intended to be used as a reference for those interested in the financial system's "plumbing," and how the associated systems are currently overseen and regulated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: July 21, 2004
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail
Description: This report discusses monetary policy, which can also be defined in terms of the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Federal Reserve, particularly those from its Board of Governors that have an effect on aggregate demand or national spending.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Pattern of Interest Rates: Does it Signal an Impending Recession?

The Pattern of Interest Rates: Does it Signal an Impending Recession?

Date: May 5, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail
Description: The cyclical behavior of the economy is of great interest to Congress, yet the onset of an economic downturn is seldom recognized promptly. Policymakers frequently search for reliable recession predictors. The behavior of interest rates may provide advanced warning of an impending downturn. The easing of monetary policy in evidence since September 2007 is consistent with efforts to forestall or minimize an economic downturn. Economic growth has been low since the last quarter of 2007, and some forecasters are now predicting a recession in 2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Pattern of Interest Rates in 2006: Could It Signal an Impending Recession?

The Pattern of Interest Rates in 2006: Could It Signal an Impending Recession?

Date: February 2, 2006
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Pattern of Interest Rates in 2006: Could It Signal an Impending Recession?

The Pattern of Interest Rates in 2006: Could It Signal an Impending Recession?

Date: February 2, 2006
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Reserve Interest Rate Changes: 2001-2008

Federal Reserve Interest Rate Changes: 2001-2008

Date: October 29, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail E.
Description: The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) decided at its scheduled meeting held on October 29 to lower the target rate for federal funds to 1% from 1½% set at its unscheduled meeting of October 8, 2008. In making its decision to reduce the target, the FOMC stressed the following factors: (1) the pace of economic growth appears to have slowed markedly owing importantly to a softening of consumer spending; (2) business equipment spending and industrial production have weakened; (3) economic slowdowns abroad have dampened the prospects for U.S. exports; (4) intensified strains in financial markets are also likely to further reduce spending; and (5) inflation prospects have improved due to declines in energy and other commodity prices. The next schedule meeting of the FOMC is set for December 11, 2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail E.
Description: This report discusses two of the four major responsibilities of the Federal Reserve (Fed) as the nation's central bank: execution of monetary policy and ensuring financial stability through the lender of last resort function. This report provides an overview of these mandates and activities, recent developments, and the role of Congressional oversight.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: April 30, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail E.
Description: Monetary policy can be defined as any policy relating to the supply of money. Since the agency concerned with the supply of money is the nation’s central bank, the Federal Reserve, monetary policy can also be defined in terms of the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Federal Reserve, particularly those from its Board of Governors that have an effect on national spending. This report discusses current issues regarding monetary policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Reserve Issues Final Rule on Emergency Lending

Federal Reserve Issues Final Rule on Emergency Lending

Date: January 6, 2016
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Murphy, M. M.
Description: This report briefly discusses major provisions of the Federal Reserve's (Fed's) Final Rule, governing emergency lending under Section 13(3) of the Federal Reserve Act and implementing Section 1101 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department