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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Date: April 16, 2003
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Insolvency of Systemically Significant Financial Companies: Bankruptcy vs. Conservatorship/Receivership

Insolvency of Systemically Significant Financial Companies: Bankruptcy vs. Conservatorship/Receivership

Date: April 20, 2009
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Description: This report first discusses the purposes behind the creation of a separate insolvency regime for depository institutions. The report then compares and contrasts the characteristics of depository institutions with systemically significant financial companies (SSFCs). Next, the report provides a brief analysis of some important differences between the FDIC's conservatorship/receivership authority and that of the Bankruptcy Code.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: March 17, 2009
Creator: Murray, Justin & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government. To finance federal borrowing, U.S. Treasury securities are sold to investors, directly from the Treasury or on the secondary market to individual private investors, financial institutions in the United States or overseas, and foreign, state, or local governments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Date: March 13, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report analyzes the extent of foreign portfolio investment in the U.S. economy and assesses the economic conditions that are attracting such investment and the impact such investments are having on the economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Global Financial Crisis: Lessons from Japan's Lost Decade of the 1990s

The Global Financial Crisis: Lessons from Japan's Lost Decade of the 1990s

Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Description: This report reviews the major actions by the Japanese government in dealing with its financial crisis and highlights some of the lessons learned from their experience in the 1990s.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Law and the Constitutionality of the "Millionaire's Amendment": An Analysis of Davis v. Federal Election Commission

Campaign Finance Law and the Constitutionality of the "Millionaire's Amendment": An Analysis of Davis v. Federal Election Commission

Date: July 17, 2008
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: In a 5-to-4 decision, the Supreme Court struck down a provision of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), also known as the McCain-Feingold law, establishing increased contribution limits for congressional candidates whose opponents significantly self-finance their campaigns. This provision is frequently referred to as the "Millionaire's Amendment." The Court found that the burden imposed on expenditures of personal funds is not justified by the compelling governmental interest of lessening corruption or the appearance of corruption and, therefore, held that the law is unconstitutional in violation of the First Amendment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Primer on Energy Derivatives and Their Regulation

Primer on Energy Derivatives and Their Regulation

Date: July 15, 2008
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: Prices of oil and other energy commodities are set in futures and derivatives markets, where producers, commercial users, and financial speculators buy and sell contracts whose value is linked to the price of the underlying commodity. Trading occurs on regulated futures exchanges and in a largely unregulated over-the-counter (OTC) market; both forms of trading are global in scope. This report presents basic information about these markets, the instruments traded, the regulatory framework, speculation, and current legislative proposals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Reserve Interest Rate Changes: 2001-2008

Federal Reserve Interest Rate Changes: 2001-2008

Date: October 29, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail E.
Description: The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) decided at its scheduled meeting held on October 29 to lower the target rate for federal funds to 1% from 1½% set at its unscheduled meeting of October 8, 2008. In making its decision to reduce the target, the FOMC stressed the following factors: (1) the pace of economic growth appears to have slowed markedly owing importantly to a softening of consumer spending; (2) business equipment spending and industrial production have weakened; (3) economic slowdowns abroad have dampened the prospects for U.S. exports; (4) intensified strains in financial markets are also likely to further reduce spending; and (5) inflation prospects have improved due to declines in energy and other commodity prices. The next schedule meeting of the FOMC is set for December 11, 2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Paris Club Debt Relief

Iraq: Paris Club Debt Relief

Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: Iraq’s public debt was estimated to be US$120.2 billion in nominal value as of the end of 2004. The debt owed to Paris Club creditors as of December 31, 2004, was estimated to be US$38.9 billion. The U.S. share of this amount is around $4 billion. Non-Paris Club countries, mostly Persian Gulf countries, are owed around $60 - $65 billion. The remaining debts are to private commercial creditors. Iraqi debt relief is a high priority for both the President and Congress (H.R. 2482). This report will discuss efforts to implement Iraqi debt relief and highlight some policy concerns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
H.R. 6076: Home Retention and Economic Stabilization Act of 2008

H.R. 6076: Home Retention and Economic Stabilization Act of 2008

Date: August 29, 2008
Creator: Murphy, Edward Vincent
Description: The Home Retention and Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 would defer foreclosure for eligible mortgage borrowers for up to 270 days. If passed, the bill would give extra time to some borrowers and lenders to consider alternatives to foreclosure, including traditional loss mitigation and participation in the new Federal Housing Administration (FHA) program for refinancing troubled loans. Some policymakers believe that a moratorium on foreclosures could help stabilize housing markets and alleviate problems from the subprime financial turmoil. This report explores this issue in detail and analyzes the individual aspects of the relevant legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Credit Default Swaps: Frequently Asked Questions

Credit Default Swaps: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: July 30, 2008
Creator: Murphy, Edward Vincent
Description: Credit default swaps are contracts that provide protection against default by third parties, similar to insurance. These financial derivatives are used by banks and other financial institutions to manage risk. The rapid growth of the derivatives market, the potential for widespread credit defaults (such as defaults for subprime mortgages), and operational problems in the over-the-counter (OTC) market where credit default swaps are traded, have led some policymakers to inquire if credit default swaps are a danger to the financial system and the economy. This report defines credit default swaps, explains their use by banks for risk management, and discusses the potential for systemic risk.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons from Chile

The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons from Chile

Date: September 29, 2008
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: From 1981-1984, Chile experienced a banking crisis that in relative terms had a cost comparable in size to that perhaps facing the United States today. The Chilean Central Bank acted quickly and decisively in three ways to restore faith in the credit markets. It restructured firm and household loans, purchased nonperforming loans temporarily, and facilitated the sale or liquidation of insolvent financial institutions. These three measures increased liquidity in the credit markets and restored the balance sheets of the viable financial institutions. This report explores this incident in detail and in relation to the current financial situation in the U.S.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons from Japan

The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons from Japan

Date: September 29, 2008
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Description: Japan's five bank bailout packages in the late 1990s may hold some lessons for the United States. Overcoming the crisis in Japan's banks took a combination of capital injections, new laws and regulations, stronger oversight, a reorganization of the banking sector, moderate economic recovery, and several years of banks working off their non-performing loans.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons from Sweden

The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons from Sweden

Date: September 29, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: In the early 1990s, Sweden faced a large banking and exchange rate crisis which it eventually resolved. Four lessons that emerged from Sweden's experience are: 1) the resolution process must be transparent; 2) the resolution agency must be politically and financially independent; 3) market discipline must be maintained; and 4) there must be a plan to jump-start credit flows in the financial system. This report provides an overview of the Swedish banking crisis and an explanation of the measures Sweden used to restore its banking system to health.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Rising Oil Prices

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Rising Oil Prices

Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: Petroleum prices rose sharply in the first half of 2008, at one time reaching more than $140 per barrel of crude oil. Since July, however, petroleum prices and import volumes have fallen at a historically rapid pace; in November, prices of crude oil fell below $55 per barrel. The fall in the cost of energy imports combined with the drop in import volumes as a result of the slowdown in economic activity has reversed the trend of rising energy imports costs and will sharply reduce the overall costs of U.S. energy imports for the rest of 2008. This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the rising oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Past and Present

Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Past and Present

Date: September 25, 2008
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Description: Statutory offices of inspector general (OIG) consolidate responsibility for audits and investigations within a federal agency. Established by public law as permanent, nonpartisan, independent offices, they now exist in more than 60 establishments and entities, including all departments and largest agencies, along with numerous boards and commissions. Various initiatives and proposals in the 110th Congress are designed to strengthen the IGs' independence, add to their reports, and create new posts in the Intelligence Community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail E.
Description: This report discusses two of the four major responsibilities of the Federal Reserve (Fed) as the nation's central bank: execution of monetary policy and ensuring financial stability through the lender of last resort function. This report provides an overview of these mandates and activities, recent developments, and the role of Congressional oversight.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008

Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008

Date: August 19, 2008
Creator: Weiss, N. E.; Getter, Darryl E.; Jickling, Mark; Keightley, Mark P. & Foote, Bruce E.
Description: This report discusses the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, P.L. 110-289, which changes many laws affecting both the housing and mortgage markets. It also surveys the most important changes caused by the act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Comparing Global Influence: China's and U.S. Diplomacy, Foreign Aid, Trade, and Investment in the Developing World

Comparing Global Influence: China's and U.S. Diplomacy, Foreign Aid, Trade, and Investment in the Developing World

Date: August 15, 2008
Creator: Lum, Thomas; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Cook, Nicolas & Coipuram, Thomas, Jr.
Description: This report compares the People's Republic of China's (PRC) and U.S. projections of global influence, with an emphasis on non-coercive means or "soft power," and suggests ways to think about U.S. foreign policy options in light of China's emergence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Ownership of U.S. Financial Assets: Implications of a Withdrawal

Foreign Ownership of U.S. Financial Assets: Implications of a Withdrawal

Date: July 4, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an overview of the role foreign investment plays in the U.S. economy. It also includes an assessment of possible actions a foreign investor or a group of foreign investors might choose to take to liquidate their investments in the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Social Security Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Szymendera, Scott
Description: This report discusses certain provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) that pertain to Social Security. The ARRA as passed by the House of Representatives and Senate provides over $1 billion in supplemental appropriations to the Social Security Administration (SSA) and provides for a onetime $250 payment to all SSI recipients and adult Social Security beneficiaries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

Date: April 21, 2006
Creator: Weiss, Martin A
Description: This report proceeds in three parts. The first provides a snapshot of the Iraq debt situation following the ouster of the Saddam regime. The second discusses subsequent debt relief negotiations and their resolution. The third presents three possible implications for future debt relief cases that arise from Iraq’s experience. They are: (1) a willingness by the international community to grant a stay on the enforcement of creditor rights, (2) an increased flexibility in Paris Club debt relief decisions, and (3) an unwillingness by successor regimes to claim that their debt is odious and repudiate it.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's Financial Problems: Frequently Asked Questions

Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's Financial Problems: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: September 12, 2008
Creator: Weiss, N. E.
Description: This report discusses the decision to place Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in conservatorship and to a certain extent, the housing, mortgage, and even general financial markets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department