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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The United States as a Net Debtor Nation: Overview of the International Investment Position

The United States as a Net Debtor Nation: Overview of the International Investment Position

Date: July 28, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: The international investment position of the United States is an annual measure of the assets Americans own abroad and the assets foreigners own in the United States. The net position, or the difference between the two, sometimes is referred to as a measure of U.S. international indebtedness. This report looks at international investing patterns and impacts, and ends with considerations on this topic for Congress.
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U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

Date: July 28, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: The United States is the largest investor abroad and the largest recipient of direct investment in the world. This report discusses pertinent issues regarding foreign investments and their effects on the U.S.'s economy.
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Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report discusses Islamic finance, which is based on principles of shariah, or "Islamic law." Major financial principles of shariah are a ban on interest, a ban on contractual uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing and profit-sharing, promotion of ethical investments that enhance society, and asset-backing. While the Islamic finance industry represents a fraction of the global finance market, it has grown at double-digit rates in recent years.
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State Small Business Credit Initiative: Implementation and Funding Issues

State Small Business Credit Initiative: Implementation and Funding Issues

Date: October 16, 2014
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: This report examines the State Small Business Credit Initiative (SSBCI) and its implementation, including Treasury's response to initial program audits conducted by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) and Treasury's Office of Inspector General (OIG). The SSBCI provides funding, allocated by formula and distributed in one-third increments, to states, territories, and eligible municipalities (hereinafter referred to as states) to expand existing or create new state small business investment programs, including state capital access programs, collateral support programs, loan participation programs, loan guarantee programs, and venture capital programs.
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Insurance Regulation: Issues, Background, and Legislation in the 113th Congress

Insurance Regulation: Issues, Background, and Legislation in the 113th Congress

Date: September 17, 2014
Creator: Webel, Baird
Description: This report discusses the legislation in the 113th Congress regarding insurance regulation. Among the insurance regulatory issues addressed by legislation in the 113th Congress are the application of federal orderly liquidation authority to insurers (addressed in H.R. 605); the supervision of some insurers by the Federal Reserve (addressed in H.R. 2140, H.R. 4510, H.R. 5461, S. 2102, and S. 2270); and the licensing of insurance agents and brokers (addressed in S. 534, S. 1926, S. 2244, H.R. 1155/H.R. 1064, and H.R. 4871).
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Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Reauthorization Issues for Congress

Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Reauthorization Issues for Congress

Date: May 29, 2009
Creator: Kirk, Robert S.
Description: This report discusses the Airport Improvement Program and its complement, the passenger facility charge (PFC), within the broader context of airport capital development finance. It contains a brief history of federal support for airport construction and improvement, the report describes AIP funding, its source of revenues, funding distribution, and the types of projects the program funds.
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Insurance Regulation: Issues, Background, and Legislation in the 113th Congress

Insurance Regulation: Issues, Background, and Legislation in the 113th Congress

Date: January 2, 2015
Creator: Webel, Baird
Description: This report discusses the legislation in the 113th Congress regarding insurance regulation. Among the insurance regulatory issues addressed by legislation in the 113th Congress are the application of federal orderly liquidation authority to insurers (addressed in H.R. 605); the supervision of some insurers by the Federal Reserve (addressed in H.R. 2140, H.R. 4510, H.R. 5461, S. 2102, and S. 2270); and the licensing of insurance agents and brokers (addressed in S. 534, S. 1926, S. 2244, H.R. 1155/H.R. 1064, and H.R. 4871).
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Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Reauthorization Issues for Congress

Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Reauthorization Issues for Congress

Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Kirk, Robert S.
Description: This report discusses the Airport Improvement Program and its complement, the passenger facility charge (PFC), within the broader context of airport capital development finance. After a brief history of federal support for airport construction and improvement, the report describes AIP funding, its source of revenues, funding distribution, and the types of projects the program funds.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The United States as a Net Debtor Nation: Overview of the International Investment Position

The United States as a Net Debtor Nation: Overview of the International Investment Position

Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report looks at international investing patterns and impacts, and ends with considerations on this topic for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

Date: November 5, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: The United States is the largest investor abroad and the largest recipient of direct investment in the world. This report discusses pertinent issues regarding foreign investments and their effects on the U.S. economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Argentine Financial Crisis: A Chronology of Events

The Argentine Financial Crisis: A Chronology of Events

Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: Argentina’s current crisis resulted from a confluence of events, some external to Argentina’s policy process, others directly related to its political and economic choices. The following is a summary of these events from before Argentina’s adoption of the currency board in 1991 to developments in early 2002.
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The Argentine Financial Crisis: A Chronology of Events

The Argentine Financial Crisis: A Chronology of Events

Date: June 5, 2003
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F. & Marshall, Meaghan K
Description: Argentina’s current crisis resulted from a confluence of events, some external to Argentina’s policy process, others directly related to its political and economic choices. The following is a summary of these events from before Argentina’s adoption of the currency board in 1991 to developments in early 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Auditing and Its Regulators: Reforms After Enron

Auditing and Its Regulators: Reforms After Enron

Date: November 15, 2002
Creator: Lyke, Bob
Description: Auditors are regulated by both governmental agencies and professional organizations, though many now question whether this oversight is adequate. Enron’s auditor, Arthur Andersen, has been investigated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), several congressional committees, and other agencies, and it is facing numerous law suits. A federal jury convicted the firm on obstruction of justice charges on June 15, 2002. Other corporations and their auditors are also under scrutiny. Numerous accounting and audit reforms have been proposed, including some by the accounting industry. The House passed an audit reform bill (H.R. 3763) on April 24, 2002. The Senate passed an amended version of its bill (S. 2673) on July 15th. The SEC published proposed reform rules June 26th; on the 28th it required top executives in companies with revenues exceeding $1.2 billion to personally certify that filed reports are complete and accurate
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Auditing and Its Regulators: Reforms After Enron

Auditing and Its Regulators: Reforms After Enron

Date: February 3, 2003
Creator: Lyke, Bob
Description: Auditors are regulated by both governmental agencies and professional organizations, though many now question whether this oversight is adequate. Enron’s auditor, Arthur Andersen, has been investigated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), several congressional committees, and other agencies, and it is facing numerous law suits. A federal jury convicted the firm on obstruction of justice charges on June 15, 2002. Other corporations and their auditors are also under scrutiny. Numerous accounting and audit reforms have been proposed, including some by the accounting industry. The House passed an audit reform bill (H.R. 3763) on April 24, 2002. The Senate passed an amended version of its bill (S. 2673) on July 15th. The SEC published proposed reform rules June 26th; on the 28th it required top executives in companies with revenues exceeding $1.2 billion to personally certify that filed reports are complete and accurate
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Auditor Oversight: Proposals for New Regulator

Auditor Oversight: Proposals for New Regulator

Date: April 18, 2002
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: This report provides basic background information on current regulation of auditors and summarizes alternatives now under consideration. Reforms proposed by Congress and the executive branch focus on oversight of the independent auditor, whose responsibility (in the broadest sense) is to certify that a corporation’s accounting statements reflect its true financial condition.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Auditing and Its Regulators: Proposals for Reform After Enron

Auditing and Its Regulators: Proposals for Reform After Enron

Date: July 16, 2002
Creator: Lyke, Bob
Description: Auditors are regulated by both governmental agencies and professional organizations, though many now question whether this oversight is adequate. Enron’s auditor, Arthur Andersen, has been investigated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), several congressional committees, and other agencies, and it is facing numerous law suits. A federal jury convicted the firm on obstruction of justice charges on June 15, 2002. Other corporations and their auditors are also under scrutiny. Numerous accounting and audit reforms have been proposed, including some by the accounting industry. The House passed an audit reform bill (H.R. 3763) on April 24, 2002. The Senate passed an amended version of its bill (S. 2673) on July 15th. The SEC published proposed reform rules June 26th; on the 28th it required top executives in companies with revenues exceeding $1.2 billion to personally certify that filed reports are complete and accurate
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Auditing and Its Regulators: Proposals for Reform After Enron

Auditing and Its Regulators: Proposals for Reform After Enron

Date: July 11, 2002
Creator: Lyke, Bob
Description: Auditors are regulated by both governmental agencies and professional organizations, though many now question whether this oversight is adequate. Enron’s auditor, Arthur Andersen, has been investigated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), several congressional committees, and other agencies, and it is facing numerous law suits. A federal jury convicted the firm on obstruction of justice charges on June 15, 2002. Other corporations and their auditors are also under scrutiny. Numerous accounting and audit reforms have been proposed, including some by the accounting industry. The House passed an audit reform bill (H.R. 3763) on April 24, 2002. The Senate passed an amended version of its bill (S. 2673) on July 15th. The SEC published proposed reform rules June 26th; on the 28th it required top executives in companies with revenues exceeding $1.2 billion to personally certify that filed reports are complete and accurate
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Auditing and Its Regulators: Reforms After Enron

Auditing and Its Regulators: Reforms After Enron

Date: September 3, 2002
Creator: Lyke, Bob
Description: Auditors are regulated by both governmental agencies and professional organizations, though many now question whether this oversight is adequate. Enron’s auditor, Arthur Andersen, has been investigated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), several congressional committees, and other agencies, and it is facing numerous law suits. A federal jury convicted the firm on obstruction of justice charges on June 15, 2002. Other corporations and their auditors are also under scrutiny. Numerous accounting and audit reforms have been proposed, including some by the accounting industry. The House passed an audit reform bill (H.R. 3763) on April 24, 2002. The Senate passed an amended version of its bill (S. 2673) on July 15th. The SEC published proposed reform rules June 26th; on the 28th it required top executives in companies with revenues exceeding $1.2 billion to personally certify that filed reports are complete and accurate
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Date: January 29, 2004
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: On March 19, 2003, the House of Representatives passed H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. H.R. 975, as introduced, was substantially similar to the legislation (H.R. 333) approved by both the House and the Senate during the 107th Congress, but omitted the Schumer Amendment which would have prevented the discharge of liability for willful violation of protective orders and violent protests against providers of “lawful services,” including reproductive health services. As passed by the House, H.R. 975 was amended to add sections to, among other things, increase the cap on wage and employee benefit claims. The Senate did not consider H.R. 975 during the first session of the 108th Congress. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation.
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Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Date: March 13, 2003
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: On February 27, 2003, House Judiciary Chairman James Sensenbrenner introduced H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. Subcommittee hearings were held on March 4, and the legislation was marked-up and ordered to be reported by the full committee on March 12. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation.
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Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Date: March 24, 2003
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: On March 19, 2003, the House of Representatives passed H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. H.R. 975, as introduced, was substantially similar to the legislation (H.R. 333) approved by both the House and the Senate during the 107th Congress, but omitted the Schumer Amendment which would have prevented the discharge of liability for willful violation of protective orders and violent protests against providers of “lawful services,” including reproductive health services. As passed by the House, H.R. 975 was amended to add sections to, among other things, increase the cap on wage and employee benefit claims. The Senate did not consider H.R. 975 during the first session of the 108th Congress. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Date: May 12, 2003
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: On March 19, 2003, the House of Representatives passed H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. H.R. 975, as introduced, was substantially similar to the legislation (H.R. 333) approved by both the House and the Senate during the 107th Congress, but omitted the Schumer Amendment which would have prevented the discharge of liability for willful violation of protective orders and violent protests against providers of “lawful services,” including reproductive health services. As passed by the House, H.R. 975 was amended to add sections to, among other things, increase the cap on wage and employee benefit claims. The Senate did not consider H.R. 975 during the first session of the 108th Congress. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bankruptcy Reform Legislation in the 107th Congress: A Comparison of H.R. 333 As Passed by the House and the Senate

Bankruptcy Reform Legislation in the 107th Congress: A Comparison of H.R. 333 As Passed by the House and the Senate

Date: July 10, 2002
Creator: Jeweler, Robin
Description: H.R. 333, 107th Congress, 1st Sess. (2001), the “Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2001” and its counterpart in the Senate, S. 220, 107th Congress, 1st Sess. (2001), the “Bankruptcy Reform Act of 2001” were introduced on January 31, 2001. So far, the 107th Congress has demonstrated widespread support for the bills evidenced by the votes. Although President Bush is expected to sign bankruptcy reform into law, the White House has indicated that a bankruptcy bill that contains a federal homestead cap may be unacceptable. This report surveys the bills and the major amendments that have been adopted. It provides a sectional analysis comparing selected provisions, with an emphasis on consumer bankruptcy.
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Brazil's Economic Reform and the Global Financial Crisis

Brazil's Economic Reform and the Global Financial Crisis

Date: June 9, 2000
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: Despite backing from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), capital flight from Brazil in 1998 prompted the government to jettison its pegged currency stabilization program and float the real on January 15, 1999, becoming another casualty of the volatile international capital markets. Brazil adjusted to its financial crisis faster than expected, which is considered over. This report provides a final summary of Brazil's financial crisis and related IMF assistance in support of Congressional interest in various aspects of the 1990s global financial turmoil. It will not be updated.
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