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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Date: March 13, 2003
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: On February 27, 2003, House Judiciary Chairman James Sensenbrenner introduced H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. Subcommittee hearings were held on March 4, and the legislation was marked-up and ordered to be reported by the full committee on March 12. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Date: March 24, 2003
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: On March 19, 2003, the House of Representatives passed H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. H.R. 975, as introduced, was substantially similar to the legislation (H.R. 333) approved by both the House and the Senate during the 107th Congress, but omitted the Schumer Amendment which would have prevented the discharge of liability for willful violation of protective orders and violent protests against providers of “lawful services,” including reproductive health services. As passed by the House, H.R. 975 was amended to add sections to, among other things, increase the cap on wage and employee benefit claims. The Senate did not consider H.R. 975 during the first session of the 108th Congress. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Date: May 12, 2003
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: On March 19, 2003, the House of Representatives passed H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. H.R. 975, as introduced, was substantially similar to the legislation (H.R. 333) approved by both the House and the Senate during the 107th Congress, but omitted the Schumer Amendment which would have prevented the discharge of liability for willful violation of protective orders and violent protests against providers of “lawful services,” including reproductive health services. As passed by the House, H.R. 975 was amended to add sections to, among other things, increase the cap on wage and employee benefit claims. The Senate did not consider H.R. 975 during the first session of the 108th Congress. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bankruptcy Reform Legislation in the 107th Congress: A Comparison of H.R. 333 As Passed by the House and the Senate

Bankruptcy Reform Legislation in the 107th Congress: A Comparison of H.R. 333 As Passed by the House and the Senate

Date: July 10, 2002
Creator: Jeweler, Robin
Description: H.R. 333, 107th Congress, 1st Sess. (2001), the “Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2001” and its counterpart in the Senate, S. 220, 107th Congress, 1st Sess. (2001), the “Bankruptcy Reform Act of 2001” were introduced on January 31, 2001. So far, the 107th Congress has demonstrated widespread support for the bills evidenced by the votes. Although President Bush is expected to sign bankruptcy reform into law, the White House has indicated that a bankruptcy bill that contains a federal homestead cap may be unacceptable. This report surveys the bills and the major amendments that have been adopted. It provides a sectional analysis comparing selected provisions, with an emphasis on consumer bankruptcy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Brazil's Economic Reform and the Global Financial Crisis

Brazil's Economic Reform and the Global Financial Crisis

Date: June 9, 2000
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: Despite backing from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), capital flight from Brazil in 1998 prompted the government to jettison its pegged currency stabilization program and float the real on January 15, 1999, becoming another casualty of the volatile international capital markets. Brazil adjusted to its financial crisis faster than expected, which is considered over. This report provides a final summary of Brazil's financial crisis and related IMF assistance in support of Congressional interest in various aspects of the 1990s global financial turmoil. It will not be updated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Date: July 10, 2001
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular over the federal election cycles. Often these advertisements could be interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has ruled that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech and cannot be regulated in any manner. According to most lower court rulings, only speech containing express words of advocacy of election or defeat, also known as “express advocacy” or “magic words” can be regulated as election-related communications and therefore be subject to the requirements of the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Unlike express advocacy communications, therefore, issue ads may be paid for with funds unregulated by federal law, i.e., soft money
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Date: March 17, 2009
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report discusses the Export-Import Bank (Ex-In Bank), the chief U.S. government agency that helps finance American exports of manufactured goods and services with the objective of contributing to the employment of U.S. workers. This report discusses the Bank's budget and related legislation, including the Omnibus Appropriations Act of 2009, signed by President Barack Obama and authorizing spending limitations for the Bank.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Corporate Accountability: Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002: (P.L. 107-204)

Corporate Accountability: Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002: (P.L. 107-204)

Date: August 27, 2002
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V & Bazan, Elizabeth B
Description: The Act establishes a new Public Company Accounting Oversight Board which is to be supervised by the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Act restricts accounting firms from performing a number of other services for the companies which they audit. The Act also requires new disclosures for public companies and the officers and directors of those companies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Direct Investment Abroad:  Trends and Current Issues

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

Date: April 29, 2005
Creator: Jackson, James K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Financial Turmoil, the IMF, and the New Financial Architecture

Global Financial Turmoil, the IMF, and the New Financial Architecture

Date: April 14, 2000
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Financial Turmoil, the IMF, and the New Financial Architecture

Global Financial Turmoil, the IMF, and the New Financial Architecture

Date: November 15, 2001
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Securities Law: Insider Trading

Federal Securities Law: Insider Trading

Date: January 30, 2002
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

Date: February 4, 2002
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: This report briefly examines the accounting system that failed to provide a clear picture of the firm’s true condition, the independent auditors and board members who were unwilling to challenge Enron’s management, the Wall Street stock analysts and bond raters who missed the trouble ahead, the rules governing employer stock in company pension plans, and the unregulated energy derivatives trading that was the core of Enron’s business. The report also describes related legislation that has received floor or committee action and will be updated regularly.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electronic Banking: The Check Truncation Issue

Electronic Banking: The Check Truncation Issue

Date: May 30, 2003
Creator: Eubanks, Walter W
Description: If all checks were replaced by electronic transactions, the exact cost savings would still be unknown, because estimates of the cost of using a check and the number of checks written each year remain in dispute. Consequently, estimates of cost savings range from $1.4 billion annually for truncation alone to $68 billion for replacing checks with electronic payments. A significant part of the savings comes from eliminating the handling, sorting, and physically transporting of checks to the paying bank. To clear checks electronically, banks must negotiate processing agreements thatmake it unnecessary to physically present the paper check. Since the benefits are not uniformly dispersed among the participants, banks have found it difficult to obtain these agreements, thus constraining the widespread adoption of electronic check clearing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electronic Banking: The Check Truncation Issue

Electronic Banking: The Check Truncation Issue

Date: July 3, 2003
Creator: Eubanks, Walter W
Description: If all checks were replaced by electronic transactions, the exact cost savings would still be unknown, because estimates of the cost of using a check and the number of checks written each year remain in dispute. Consequently, estimates of cost savings range from $1.4 billion annually for truncation alone to $68 billion for replacing checks with electronic payments. A significant part of the savings comes from eliminating the handling, sorting, and physically transporting of checks to the paying bank. To clear checks electronically, banks must negotiate processing agreements thatmake it unnecessary to physically present the paper check. Since the benefits are not uniformly dispersed among the participants, banks have found it difficult to obtain these agreements, thus constraining the widespread adoption of electronic check clearing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electronic Banking: The Check Truncation Issue

Electronic Banking: The Check Truncation Issue

Date: October 3, 2003
Creator: Eubanks, Walter W
Description: If all checks were replaced by electronic transactions, the exact cost savings would still be unknown, because estimates of the cost of using a check and the number of checks written each year remain in dispute. Consequently, estimates of cost savings range from $1.4 billion annually for truncation alone to $68 billion for replacing checks with electronic payments. A significant part of the savings comes from eliminating the handling, sorting, and physically transporting of checks to the paying bank. To clear checks electronically, banks must negotiate processing agreements thatmake it unnecessary to physically present the paper check. Since the benefits are not uniformly dispersed among the participants, banks have found it difficult to obtain these agreements, thus constraining the widespread adoption of electronic check clearing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
H.R. 2415: Bankruptcy Reform in the Closing Days of the 106th Congress

H.R. 2415: Bankruptcy Reform in the Closing Days of the 106th Congress

Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Jeweler, Robin
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

Date: March 19, 2002
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: This report briefly examines the accounting system that failed to provide a clear picture of the firm’s true condition, the independent auditors and board members who were unwilling to challenge Enron’s management, the Wall Street stock analysts and bond raters who missed the trouble ahead, the rules governing employer stock in company pension plans, and the unregulated energy derivatives trading that was the core of Enron’s business. The report also describes related legislation that has received floor or committee action and will be updated regularly.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

Date: March 28, 2002
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: This report briefly examines the accounting system that failed to provide a clear picture of the firm’s true condition, the independent auditors and board members who were unwilling to challenge Enron’s management, the Wall Street stock analysts and bond raters who missed the trouble ahead, the rules governing employer stock in company pension plans, and the unregulated energy derivatives trading that was the core of Enron’s business. The report also describes related legislation that has received floor or committee action and will be updated regularly.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

Date: July 24, 2002
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: This report briefly examines the accounting system that failed to provide a clear picture of the firm’s true condition, the independent auditors and board members who were unwilling to challenge Enron’s management, the Wall Street stock analysts and bond raters who missed the trouble ahead, the rules governing employer stock in company pension plans, and the unregulated energy derivatives trading that was the core of Enron’s business. The report also describes related legislation that has received floor or committee action and will be updated regularly.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

Date: September 18, 2002
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: This report briefly examines the accounting system that failed to provide a clear picture of the firm’s true condition, the independent auditors and board members who were unwilling to challenge Enron’s management, the Wall Street stock analysts and bond raters who missed the trouble ahead, the rules governing employer stock in company pension plans, and the unregulated energy derivatives trading that was the core of Enron’s business. The report also describes related legislation that has received floor or committee action and will be updated regularly.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: This report briefly examines the accounting system that failed to provide a clear picture of the firm’s true condition, the independent auditors and board members who were unwilling to challenge Enron’s management, the Wall Street stock analysts and bond raters who missed the trouble ahead, the rules governing employer stock in company pension plans, and the unregulated energy derivatives trading that was the core of Enron’s business. The report also describes related legislation that has received floor or committee action and will be updated regularly.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mergers and Consolidation Between Banking and Financial Services Firms: Trends and Prospects

Mergers and Consolidation Between Banking and Financial Services Firms: Trends and Prospects

Date: May 15, 2003
Creator: Jackson, William D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mergers and Consolidation Between Banking and Financial Services Firms: Trends and Prospects

Mergers and Consolidation Between Banking and Financial Services Firms: Trends and Prospects

Date: August 8, 2003
Creator: Jackson, William D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department