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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Auditor Oversight: Proposals for New Regulator

Auditor Oversight: Proposals for New Regulator

Date: April 18, 2002
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: This report provides basic background information on current regulation of auditors and summarizes alternatives now under consideration. Reforms proposed by Congress and the executive branch focus on oversight of the independent auditor, whose responsibility (in the broadest sense) is to certify that a corporation’s accounting statements reflect its true financial condition.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

Date: August 3, 2011
Creator: Saturno, James V. & Lynch, Megan Suzanne
Description: This report provides an overview of the issues and options that have been raised during prior consideration of proposals for an amendment to the constitution regarding the balancing of the U.S. government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bank and Thrift Deposit Insurance Premiums: The Record from 1934-2004

Bank and Thrift Deposit Insurance Premiums: The Record from 1934-2004

Date: January 3, 2005
Creator: Miles, Barbara L & Jackson, William D
Description: Since federal deposit insurance first came into being in the mid-1930s, commercial banks and savings associations (thrifts) have paid premiums into government insurance reserves to cover losses due to financial institution failures. Banks and thrifts have come to offer similar services and the government has standardized insurance premiums for the two institutions to reflect their competition. Deposit insurance premiums have been the subject of legislation several times over recent years including measures passed by the House. Most banks and thrifts pay essentially no premiums, but the potential for future assessments continues to drive “reform” legislation. This report provides the rationale and amounts of assessments since federal deposit insurance began and will be updated annually.
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Bank Failures: Recent Trends and Policy Options

Bank Failures: Recent Trends and Policy Options

Date: July 14, 1987
Creator: Smale, Pauline
Description: During the 1980s the U.S. banking industry has experienced a rapidly growing number of failures. Many factors have contributed to this trend including deregulation, technology, individual bank management, and economic conditions. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) handles insured bank failures. Congress has been monitoring the recent trend and is concerned with the FDIC’s ability to continue to perform its supervisory and insurance operations. The present situation, information on key factors affecting the banking industry, and the FDIC’s role when a bank fails is discussed in this report. The reference section of this issue brief contains a list of CRS products providing background on the FDIC and legislative issues relevant to the agency.
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Banking Acquisition and Merger Procedures

Banking Acquisition and Merger Procedures

Date: May 19, 1998
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: This report discusses in general terms the basic process and time line for banking industry acquisitions and mergers and briefly discusses the May 4, 1998 application by Travelers Group to merge with Citicorp. Among the issues discussed are: potential impact on consumers; whether the new entities would be too big to fail; and, whether competitive equity calls for financial modernization legislation with functional regulation of the securities, banking, and insurance sectors of companies offering customers a full range of financial products and services. Legislative developments on financial modernization issues in the 105th Congress are reported in CRS Issue Brief 97034, which is available on the Legislative Information System.
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Banking and Finance: Legislative Initiatives in the 105th Congress, Second Session

Banking and Finance: Legislative Initiatives in the 105th Congress, Second Session

Date: August 10, 1998
Creator: Shorter, Gary & Wells, F. Jean
Description: This report reviews major banking and finance issues that are receiving congressional attention in the 2nd session of the 105th Congress. It will be updated periodically to reflect legislative developments. Relevant CRS products are referenced.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Banking and Securities Regulation and Agency Enforcement Authorities

Banking and Securities Regulation and Agency Enforcement Authorities

Date: January 17, 2006
Creator: Jackson, William D; Jickling, Mark; Shorter, Gary; Murphy, M. Maureen & Seitzinger, Michael V
Description: The federal bank regulatory agencies — the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and the Office of Thrift Supervision — have extensive authority to enforce various legal and regulatory standards with respect to the banking institutions that they supervise. Similarly, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has a wide range of tools to enforce the securities laws. This report provides a brief sketch of these authorities and identifies the organizational entities within each agency that Congress assigns enforcement responsibilities. It includes a table comparing the formal enforcement tools that the banking agencies may use with those of the SEC.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Banking's Proposed "Know Your Customer" Rules

Banking's Proposed "Know Your Customer" Rules

Date: August 31, 2001
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: On December 7, 1998, federal banking regulators proposed regulations that would have required banks and thrifts to develop formal policies and procedures to identify unusual transactions in customers’ accounts to report as suspicious activity in conjunction with the federal laws outlawing money laundering. Although there were varied proposals before the 106th Congress on the issue, no legislation was enacted. The issue likeliest to command attention in the 107th Congress is international money laundering. There have been recent instances in which banking regulators imposed corrective action, comparable to the Know Your Customer requirements, on several international banking institutions after unearthing potential money laundering activity.
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Bankruptcy and Business Failure Data

Bankruptcy and Business Failure Data

Date: August 20, 1982
Creator: Scott, Oscar
Description: The purpose of this report is to provide statistical data on the actual number of businesses that are filing for bankruptcy or ceasing operations. Tabular data of both a historical and current nature concerning business failures and bankruptcies is provided.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress

Date: January 29, 2004
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: On March 19, 2003, the House of Representatives passed H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. H.R. 975, as introduced, was substantially similar to the legislation (H.R. 333) approved by both the House and the Senate during the 107th Congress, but omitted the Schumer Amendment which would have prevented the discharge of liability for willful violation of protective orders and violent protests against providers of “lawful services,” including reproductive health services. As passed by the House, H.R. 975 was amended to add sections to, among other things, increase the cap on wage and employee benefit claims. The Senate did not consider H.R. 975 during the first session of the 108th Congress. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department