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 Decade: 1980-1989
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Bank Failures: Recent Trends and Policy Options

Bank Failures: Recent Trends and Policy Options

Date: July 14, 1987
Creator: Smale, Pauline
Description: During the 1980s the U.S. banking industry has experienced a rapidly growing number of failures. Many factors have contributed to this trend including deregulation, technology, individual bank management, and economic conditions. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) handles insured bank failures. Congress has been monitoring the recent trend and is concerned with the FDIC’s ability to continue to perform its supervisory and insurance operations. The present situation, information on key factors affecting the banking industry, and the FDIC’s role when a bank fails is discussed in this report. The reference section of this issue brief contains a list of CRS products providing background on the FDIC and legislative issues relevant to the agency.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bankruptcy and Business Failure Data

Bankruptcy and Business Failure Data

Date: August 20, 1982
Creator: Scott, Oscar
Description: The purpose of this report is to provide statistical data on the actual number of businesses that are filing for bankruptcy or ceasing operations. Tabular data of both a historical and current nature concerning business failures and bankruptcies is provided.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Reform: A Summary and Analysis of Legislative Proposals In the 98th and 99th Congresses

Campaign Finance Reform: A Summary and Analysis of Legislative Proposals In the 98th and 99th Congresses

Date: January 5, 1987
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: This report summarizes and analyzes on a conceptual basis the 108 bills and major amendments offered in the 98th and 99th Congresses which proposed changes in the campaign finance laws governing Federal elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing

Campaign Financing

Date: July 30, 1987
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E & Durbin, Thomas M
Description: This is one report in the series of reports that discuss the campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today’s paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing in Federal Elections: A Guide to the Law and Its Operation

Campaign Financing in Federal Elections: A Guide to the Law and Its Operation

Date: August 8, 1986
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: This report provides an introduction to the laws governing the financing of Federal election campaigns and presents data on campaign finance activity in the 1980’s.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Changing World of Financial Intermediaries and Related Institutions: Survey of Major Developments and Their Implications for Public Policy

The Changing World of Financial Intermediaries and Related Institutions: Survey of Major Developments and Their Implications for Public Policy

Date: December 30, 1982
Creator: Allen, Julius W
Description: Inflation, high and variable interest rates, and new electronic technology have had a profound impact on financial institutions throughout the world. This report surveys how the various kinds of financial institutions in the United States have been affected by these developments, how they have reacted, what major legislative action has been taken, and what policy issues remain.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Common Legal Questions and Answers Concerning Currency, Legal Tender and Money

Common Legal Questions and Answers Concerning Currency, Legal Tender and Money

Date: July 5, 1983
Creator: American Law Division
Description: This report answers common legal questions relating to currency, legal tender, and money.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conrail: Sell to Norfolk Southern Corporation or Sell to a Group of Investors?

Conrail: Sell to Norfolk Southern Corporation or Sell to a Group of Investors?

Date: July 18, 1985
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: This issue brief discusses that possible forthcoming sale of a large, federally-owned railroad to the holding company of one of the Nation's largest railroads, or sale to a group of investors for later sale to the public through a stock offering.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Divestiture of American Telephone and Telegraph Company: The Impact on Shareholders

The Divestiture of American Telephone and Telegraph Company: The Impact on Shareholders

Date: December 7, 1983
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A
Description: This report analyzes the impact which the divestiture of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) will have on the 3.2 million holders of AT&T stock. The method of distribution and the listing and trading mechanics of the shares as well as dividend and tax information are discussed. A brief analysis of initial stock performance based on the first two weeks of trading concludes the analysis.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Economic Analysis and Brief Legislative Overview of Usury Ceilings

An Economic Analysis and Brief Legislative Overview of Usury Ceilings

Date: July 2, 1981
Creator: Anderson, William
Description: This report gives an economic analysis of usury ceilings, laws which set the maximum legal rate of interest to be charged on particular types of loans. It provides a brief overview of recent Federal l e g i s l a t i o n dealing with usury, with special emphasis on the Federal authorities mandated by P.L. 96-221, and the effectiveness of Federal preemption of State usury laws.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exchange Rates: The Dollar in International Markets

Exchange Rates: The Dollar in International Markets

Date: April 17, 1987
Creator: Wilson, Arlene
Description: Mainstream economic theory suggests that U.S. budget deficit was the main cause of the dollar appreciation between 1980 and early 1985. The high budget deficit forced the U.S. Government to compete against the private sector for available savings, raising interest rates in the United States. In response, net capital inflows to the United States increased, the demand for dollars on the foreign exchange market went up, and the dollar appreciated. Restrictive budgets and loose monetary policies abroad, both of which kept interest rates low abroad, also contributed to the dollar’s appreciation on over this period.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Reserve Membership and Monetary Control

Federal Reserve Membership and Monetary Control

Date: January 12, 1981
Creator: White, Roger
Description: This report discusses the current state of monetary policy. Questions about the continued capability of the Federal Reserve System (FRS) to exercise effective monetary control were raised in connection with several developments over recent years that diminished, in relative terms, the deposit component of the stock of money over which the FRS maintained reserve requirement controls. The Monetary Control Act, Title 1 of P.L. 96-221 was designed to ensure that the FRS as ability to conduct monetary policy is not diminished. This Act, signed into law on Mar. 31, 1980, is one of the few major amendments to the original Federal Reserve Act of 1913.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Finance and Adjustment: The International Debt Crisis, 1982-84

Finance and Adjustment: The International Debt Crisis, 1982-84

Date: September 17, 1984
Creator: Wertman, Patricia A
Description: This report provides an overview of the international debt problem which has significantly disturbed the international economic environment of the 1980s. It describes the characteristics of the less developed country (LDC) debt and discusses the role of major participants in the debt crisis. The study shows how the role of the participants has evolved during the crisis. Lastly, some of the issues arising from the debt crisis are discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financial Deregulation: Current Status and Legislative Issues

Financial Deregulation: Current Status and Legislative Issues

Date: April 4, 1985
Creator: Wells, F. J.
Description: This report reviews deregulation to date and its effects on financial markets. Current policy issues are also identified.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Investment in U.S. Industry

Foreign Investment in U.S. Industry

Date: October 18, 1982
Creator: Wilson, Arlene
Description: Although the total amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the U.S. is small relative to U.S. direct investment abroad, it is growing rapidly and may have a large effect on some industries and geographic areas of the U.S. The two main issues raised by FDI in the U.S. are first, shall Congress require more extensive data collection efforts than are already underway, and second, should laws be enacted to limit foreign direct investment in the U.S. These two issues turn in substantial measure on whether the benefits of additional data collection and/or restrictions on FDI in the U.S. exceed the costs. This report discusses the legislative history of the issue, the magnitude and distribution of FDI in the U.S., the existing data collection efforts, the potential implications for the U.S., the motivations for FDI in the U.S., and U.S. policy regarding FDI.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Ownership of Property in the United States: Federal and State Restrictions

Foreign Ownership of Property in the United States: Federal and State Restrictions

Date: June 23, 1980
Creator: Zaritsky, Howard
Description: This report examines various legal issues raised by Federal and State laws restricting foreign ownership in U. S. property. The report examines the constitutional barriers to Federal and State laws restricting such ownership, and the possible constitutional predicates for Federal legislation regulating foreign ownership of property in the united States. The impact of treaties to which the United States is a party on both Federal and State restrictions on the rights of foreign persons to own U.S. property is also discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The General Motors-Toyota Joint Venture and Its Competitive Implications

The General Motors-Toyota Joint Venture and Its Competitive Implications

Date: July 13, 1983
Creator: Bass, Gwenell L
Description: This report reviews the economics of joint ventures by focusing on their implication for market competition. It also reviews the legislative history of mergers and joint ventures with special emphasis on aspects of the law that are directed at reducing market concentration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Glass-Steagall Act: Commercial vs. Investment Banking

Glass-Steagall Act: Commercial vs. Investment Banking

Date: June 29, 1987
Creator: Jackson, William D.
Description: This report discusses debate over reform of the Nation's financial structure in the 100th Congress includes re-examination of "the separation of banking and commerce." This separation was mandated by the Glass-Steagall Act (part of the Banking Act of 1933); and was carried forward into the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended in 1970 and thereafter. The resulting isolation of banking from securities was designed to (1) maintain the integrity of the banking system; (2) prevent self-dealing and other financial abuses; and (3) limit stock market speculation. By half a century later, the "wall" it created seemed to be crumbling, as bankers created new financial products resembling securities, and securities firms innovated new financial products resembling loans and deposits. The ongoing process of "financial deregulation" has evoked calls for Congress to give depository institutions new powers, especially in the securities field. Financial deregulation in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Japan has put additional pressure on Congress to re-examine this Act. Concerns over a seemingly fragile system of depository institutions persist, however, tending to place counter-pressure on Congress to maintain the Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Grace Commission

Grace Commission

Date: 1984
Creator: Congressional Reference Division
Description: None
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High Interest Rates: Causes and Effects

High Interest Rates: Causes and Effects

Date: June 30, 1980
Creator: Leisenring, Carol
Description: This report describes the major market and policy forces that determine the general level of interest rates. The discussion is related to the recent economic experience of high interest rates and inflation, but may be generally applied to any economic environment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
High Interest Rates: Causes, Consequences, and Issues

High Interest Rates: Causes, Consequences, and Issues

Date: January 30, 1984
Creator: Dernburg, Thomas F
Description: This paper reviews the causes of the steep interest rate escalation since 1978 and the persistence of high rates during the recent recession and revival.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Liability Insurance Controversy

The Liability Insurance Controversy

Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Whiteman, David
Description: This report discusses liability insurance, as the primary method of managing business related risks that has been recognized as one of the foundations of American commerce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Liability Insurance Controversy

The Liability Insurance Controversy

Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Whiteman, David
Description: This report discusses liability insurance, as the primary method of managing business related risks that has been recognized as one of the foundations of American comnerce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Liability Insurance Crisis

The Liability Insurance Crisis

Date: June 1, 1987
Creator: Cohen, Henry & Whiteman, David
Description: This report discusses liability insurance crisis, including complaints from businesses, professionals , and municipalities as well threat of lawsuits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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